PMID- 28263995
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DCOM- 20170825
LR  - 20170825
IS  - 1932-6203 (Electronic)
IS  - 1932-6203 (Linking)
VI  - 12
IP  - 3
DP  - 2017
TI  - Metabolic activity, urease production, antibiotic resistance and virulence in
      dual species biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus.
PG  - e0172700
LID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0172700 [doi]
AB  - In this paper, the metabolic activity in single and dual species biofilms of
      Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus isolates was investigated.
      Our results demonstrated that there was less metabolic activity in dual species
      biofilms compared to S. aureus biofilms. However, this was not observed if S.
      aureus and S. epidermidis were obtained from the same sample. The largest effect 
      on metabolic activity was observed in biofilms of S. aureus Mu50 and S.
      epidermidis ET-024. A transcriptomic analysis of these dual species biofilms
      showed that urease genes and genes encoding proteins involved in metabolism were 
      downregulated in comparison to monospecies biofilms. These results were
      subsequently confirmed by phenotypic assays. As metabolic activity is related to 
      acid production, the pH in dual species biofilms was slightly higher compared to 
      S. aureus Mu50 biofilms. Our results showed that S. epidermidis ET-024 in dual
      species biofilms inhibits metabolic activity of S. aureus Mu50, leading to less
      acid production. As a consequence, less urease activity is required to compensate
      for low pH. Importantly, this effect was biofilm-specific. Also S. aureus Mu50
      genes encoding virulence-associated proteins (Spa, SplF and Dps) were upregulated
      in dual species biofilms compared to monospecies biofilms and using
      Caenorhabditis elegans infection assays, we demonstrated that more nematodes
      survived when co-infected with S. epidermidis ET-024 and S. aureus mutants
      lacking functional spa, splF or dps genes, compared to nematodes infected with S.
      epidermidis ET-024 and wild- type S. aureus. Finally, S. epidermidis ET-024 genes
      encoding resistance to oxacillin, erythromycin and tobramycin were upregulated in
      dual species biofilms and increased resistance was subsequently confirmed. Our
      data indicate that both species in dual species biofilms of S. epidermidis and S.
      aureus influence each other's behavior, but additional studies are required
      necessary to elucidate the exact mechanism(s) involved.
FAU - Vandecandelaere, Ilse
AU  - Vandecandelaere I
AD  - Laboratorium voor Farmaceutische Microbiologie, Universiteit Gent,
      Ottergemsesteenweg, Gent, Belgium.
FAU - Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip
AU  - Van Nieuwerburgh F
AD  - Laboratorium voor Farmaceutische Biotechnologie, Universiteit Gent,
      Ottergemsesteenweg, Gent, Belgium.
FAU - Deforce, Dieter
AU  - Deforce D
AD  - Laboratorium voor Farmaceutische Biotechnologie, Universiteit Gent,
      Ottergemsesteenweg, Gent, Belgium.
FAU - Coenye, Tom
AU  - Coenye T
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6407-0601
AD  - Laboratorium voor Farmaceutische Microbiologie, Universiteit Gent,
      Ottergemsesteenweg, Gent, Belgium.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20170306
PL  - United States
TA  - PLoS One
JT  - PloS one
JID - 101285081
RN  - 0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents)
RN  - EC 3.5.1.5 (Urease)
SB  - IM
MH  - Animals
MH  - Anti-Bacterial Agents/*pharmacology
MH  - Biofilms/*drug effects
MH  - Caenorhabditis elegans/microbiology
MH  - *Drug Resistance, Bacterial
MH  - *Energy Metabolism
MH  - Enzyme Activation
MH  - Gene Expression Profiling
MH  - Humans
MH  - Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
MH  - Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology
MH  - Staphylococcus aureus/*drug effects/isolation & purification/*physiology
MH  - Staphylococcus epidermidis/*drug effects/isolation & purification/*physiology
MH  - Transcriptome
MH  - Urease/*biosynthesis
MH  - Virulence/genetics
PMC - PMC5338783
EDAT- 2017/03/07 06:00
MHDA- 2017/08/26 06:00
CRDT- 2017/03/07 06:00
PHST- 2016/08/16 00:00 [received]
PHST- 2017/02/08 00:00 [accepted]
PHST- 2017/03/07 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2017/03/07 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2017/08/26 06:00 [medline]
AID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0172700 [doi]
AID - PONE-D-16-32801 [pii]
PST - epublish
SO  - PLoS One. 2017 Mar 6;12(3):e0172700. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172700.
      eCollection 2017.