PMID- 27974597
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DCOM- 20170824
LR  - 20180506
IS  - 1753-4887 (Electronic)
IS  - 0029-6643 (Linking)
VI  - 75
IP  - 1
DP  - 2017 Jan
TI  - What is the appropriate upper limit for added sugars consumption?
PG  - 18-36
AB  - Dramatic increases in obesity and diabetes have occurred worldwide over the past 
      30 years. Some investigators have suggested that these increases may be due, in
      part, to increased added sugars consumption. Several scientific organizations,
      including the World Health Organization, the Scientific Advisory Council on
      Nutrition, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee 2015, and the American Heart
      Association, have recommended significant restrictions on upper limits of sugars 
      consumption. In this review, the scientific evidence related to sugars
      consumption and its putative link to various chronic conditions such as obesity, 
      diabetes, heart disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and the metabolic
      syndrome is examined. While it appears prudent to avoid excessive calories from
      sugars, the scientific basis for restrictive guidelines is far from settled.
CI  - (c) The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the
      International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions,
      please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
FAU - Rippe, James M
AU  - Rippe JM
AD  - J.M. Rippe is with the Rippe Lifestyle Institute, Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, USA;
      and the Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Central Florida,
      Orlando, Florida, USA. J.L. Sievenpiper is with the Department of Nutritional
      Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada;
      and the Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, St Michael's Hospital; the Li
      Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael's Hospital; the Toronto 3D Knowledge
      Synthesis and Clinical Trials Unit, St Michael's Hospital; and the Clinical
      Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Centre, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto,
      Ontario, Canada. K.-A. Le is with Nestec Ltd, Nestle Research Center, Lausanne,
      Switzerland. J.S. White is with White Technical Research, Argenta, Illinois, USA.
      R. Clemens is with the Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences,
      University of Southern California School of Pharmacy, University of Southern
      California; and the International Center for Regulatory Science, University of
      Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA. T.J. Angelopoulos is with the 
      School of Health Sciences, Emory and Henry College, Emory, Virginia, USA.
      jrippe@rippelifestyle.com.
FAU - Sievenpiper, John L
AU  - Sievenpiper JL
AD  - J.M. Rippe is with the Rippe Lifestyle Institute, Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, USA;
      and the Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Central Florida,
      Orlando, Florida, USA. J.L. Sievenpiper is with the Department of Nutritional
      Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada;
      and the Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, St Michael's Hospital; the Li
      Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael's Hospital; the Toronto 3D Knowledge
      Synthesis and Clinical Trials Unit, St Michael's Hospital; and the Clinical
      Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Centre, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto,
      Ontario, Canada. K.-A. Le is with Nestec Ltd, Nestle Research Center, Lausanne,
      Switzerland. J.S. White is with White Technical Research, Argenta, Illinois, USA.
      R. Clemens is with the Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences,
      University of Southern California School of Pharmacy, University of Southern
      California; and the International Center for Regulatory Science, University of
      Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA. T.J. Angelopoulos is with the 
      School of Health Sciences, Emory and Henry College, Emory, Virginia, USA.
FAU - Le, Kim-Anne
AU  - Le KA
AD  - J.M. Rippe is with the Rippe Lifestyle Institute, Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, USA;
      and the Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Central Florida,
      Orlando, Florida, USA. J.L. Sievenpiper is with the Department of Nutritional
      Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada;
      and the Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, St Michael's Hospital; the Li
      Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael's Hospital; the Toronto 3D Knowledge
      Synthesis and Clinical Trials Unit, St Michael's Hospital; and the Clinical
      Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Centre, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto,
      Ontario, Canada. K.-A. Le is with Nestec Ltd, Nestle Research Center, Lausanne,
      Switzerland. J.S. White is with White Technical Research, Argenta, Illinois, USA.
      R. Clemens is with the Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences,
      University of Southern California School of Pharmacy, University of Southern
      California; and the International Center for Regulatory Science, University of
      Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA. T.J. Angelopoulos is with the 
      School of Health Sciences, Emory and Henry College, Emory, Virginia, USA.
FAU - White, John S
AU  - White JS
AD  - J.M. Rippe is with the Rippe Lifestyle Institute, Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, USA;
      and the Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Central Florida,
      Orlando, Florida, USA. J.L. Sievenpiper is with the Department of Nutritional
      Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada;
      and the Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, St Michael's Hospital; the Li
      Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael's Hospital; the Toronto 3D Knowledge
      Synthesis and Clinical Trials Unit, St Michael's Hospital; and the Clinical
      Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Centre, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto,
      Ontario, Canada. K.-A. Le is with Nestec Ltd, Nestle Research Center, Lausanne,
      Switzerland. J.S. White is with White Technical Research, Argenta, Illinois, USA.
      R. Clemens is with the Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences,
      University of Southern California School of Pharmacy, University of Southern
      California; and the International Center for Regulatory Science, University of
      Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA. T.J. Angelopoulos is with the 
      School of Health Sciences, Emory and Henry College, Emory, Virginia, USA.
FAU - Clemens, Roger
AU  - Clemens R
AD  - J.M. Rippe is with the Rippe Lifestyle Institute, Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, USA;
      and the Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Central Florida,
      Orlando, Florida, USA. J.L. Sievenpiper is with the Department of Nutritional
      Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada;
      and the Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, St Michael's Hospital; the Li
      Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael's Hospital; the Toronto 3D Knowledge
      Synthesis and Clinical Trials Unit, St Michael's Hospital; and the Clinical
      Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Centre, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto,
      Ontario, Canada. K.-A. Le is with Nestec Ltd, Nestle Research Center, Lausanne,
      Switzerland. J.S. White is with White Technical Research, Argenta, Illinois, USA.
      R. Clemens is with the Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences,
      University of Southern California School of Pharmacy, University of Southern
      California; and the International Center for Regulatory Science, University of
      Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA. T.J. Angelopoulos is with the 
      School of Health Sciences, Emory and Henry College, Emory, Virginia, USA.
FAU - Angelopoulos, Theodore J
AU  - Angelopoulos TJ
AD  - J.M. Rippe is with the Rippe Lifestyle Institute, Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, USA;
      and the Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Central Florida,
      Orlando, Florida, USA. J.L. Sievenpiper is with the Department of Nutritional
      Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada;
      and the Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, St Michael's Hospital; the Li
      Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael's Hospital; the Toronto 3D Knowledge
      Synthesis and Clinical Trials Unit, St Michael's Hospital; and the Clinical
      Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Centre, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto,
      Ontario, Canada. K.-A. Le is with Nestec Ltd, Nestle Research Center, Lausanne,
      Switzerland. J.S. White is with White Technical Research, Argenta, Illinois, USA.
      R. Clemens is with the Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences,
      University of Southern California School of Pharmacy, University of Southern
      California; and the International Center for Regulatory Science, University of
      Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA. T.J. Angelopoulos is with the 
      School of Health Sciences, Emory and Henry College, Emory, Virginia, USA.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
PT  - Review
PL  - United States
TA  - Nutr Rev
JT  - Nutrition reviews
JID - 0376405
RN  - 0 (Nutritive Sweeteners)
SB  - IM
MH  - Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood/etiology
MH  - Heart Diseases/blood/etiology
MH  - Humans
MH  - Insulin Resistance
MH  - Meta-Analysis as Topic
MH  - Metabolic Syndrome/blood/etiology
MH  - Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/blood/etiology
MH  - *Nutrition Policy
MH  - Nutritive Sweeteners/*administration & dosage/*adverse effects
MH  - Obesity/blood/etiology
MH  - Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
MH  - United States
PMC - PMC5916235
OTO - NOTNLM
OT  - *added sugars
OT  - *diabetes
OT  - *fructose
OT  - *heart disease
OT  - *high fructose corn syrup
OT  - *obesity
OT  - *sucrose
EDAT- 2016/12/16 06:00
MHDA- 2017/08/25 06:00
CRDT- 2016/12/16 06:00
PHST- 2016/12/16 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2016/12/16 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2017/08/25 06:00 [medline]
AID - nuw046 [pii]
AID - 10.1093/nutrit/nuw046 [doi]
PST - ppublish
SO  - Nutr Rev. 2017 Jan;75(1):18-36. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nuw046.