PMID- 27772763
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DCOM- 20170522
LR  - 20170916
IS  - 1878-5883 (Electronic)
IS  - 0022-510X (Linking)
VI  - 370
DP  - 2016 Nov 15
TI  - Smoking increases the risk of progression in multiple sclerosis: A cohort study
      in Queensland, Australia.
PG  - 219-223
LID - S0022-510X(16)30622-0 [pii]
LID - 10.1016/j.jns.2016.09.057 [doi]
AB  - BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking has been associated with increased risk of
      progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). The effect of smoking status on risk and
      timing of disease progression in patients with MS in Queensland, Australia has
      not been established. METHODS: A clinical cohort of 646 cases (531 females, 115
      males) were followed from first clinic attendance to onset of clinically
      determined progressive disease. Progression risk was analysed with gender, age,
      age of onset, exposure to disease modifying therapy, and smoking status as
      covariates in a Cox proportional hazards analysis. RESULTS: There were
      significantly higher risks of secondary progressive disease in males (Hazard
      Ratio, HR 1.83, 95% CI: 1.3-2.7) and in ever smokers (HR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.0-2.0).
      Progressive disease occurred approximately 4years earlier in ever smokers.
      Smoking did not affect age of onset of primary progressive disease. CONCLUSIONS: 
      Cigarette smoking was associated with earlier onset of progressive disease in
      this large clinical cohort. For patients with relapsing-remitting disease,
      smoking cessation should be encouraged.
CI  - Copyright (c) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
FAU - O'Gorman, Cullen M
AU  - O'Gorman CM
AD  - School of Medicine, Gold Coast Campus, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 4222,
      Australia. Electronic address: c.ogorman@griffith.edu.au.
FAU - Broadley, Simon A
AU  - Broadley SA
AD  - School of Medicine, Gold Coast Campus, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 4222,
      Australia.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20160928
PL  - Netherlands
TA  - J Neurol Sci
JT  - Journal of the neurological sciences
JID - 0375403
SB  - IM
MH  - Adolescent
MH  - Adult
MH  - Aged
MH  - Aged, 80 and over
MH  - Cohort Studies
MH  - Disability Evaluation
MH  - Disease Progression
MH  - Female
MH  - Humans
MH  - Male
MH  - Middle Aged
MH  - Multiple Sclerosis/*epidemiology/*physiopathology
MH  - Prevalence
MH  - Proportional Hazards Models
MH  - Queensland/epidemiology
MH  - Risk
MH  - Risk Factors
MH  - Smoking/*epidemiology/*physiopathology
MH  - Young Adult
OTO - NOTNLM
OT  - *Epidemiology
OT  - *Multiple sclerosis progression
OT  - *Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis
OT  - *Smoking
OT  - *Survival analysis
EDAT- 2016/10/25 06:00
MHDA- 2017/05/23 06:00
CRDT- 2016/10/25 06:00
PHST- 2016/07/15 00:00 [received]
PHST- 2016/08/30 00:00 [revised]
PHST- 2016/09/27 00:00 [accepted]
PHST- 2016/10/25 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2017/05/23 06:00 [medline]
PHST- 2016/10/25 06:00 [entrez]
AID - S0022-510X(16)30622-0 [pii]
AID - 10.1016/j.jns.2016.09.057 [doi]
PST - ppublish
SO  - J Neurol Sci. 2016 Nov 15;370:219-223. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2016.09.057. Epub 2016 
      Sep 28.