PMID- 27432055
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DCOM- 20180806
LR  - 20180806
IS  - 1471-6771 (Electronic)
IS  - 0007-0912 (Linking)
VI  - 117 Suppl 1
DP  - 2016 Sep
TI  - Ultrasonographic identification of the cricothyroid membrane: best evidence,
      techniques, and clinical impact.
PG  - i39-i48
LID - 10.1093/bja/aew176 [doi]
AB  - Inability to identify the cricothyroid membrane by inspection and palpation
      contributes substantially to the high failure rate of cricothyrotomy. This
      narrative review summarizes the current evidence for application of airway
      ultrasonography for identification of the cricothyroid membrane compared with the
      clinical techniques. We identified the best-documented techniques for bedside
      use, their success rates, and the necessary training for airway-ultrasound-naive 
      clinicians. After a short but structured training, the cricothyroid membrane can 
      be identified using ultrasound in difficult patients by previously
      airway-ultrasound naive anaesthetists with double the success rate of palpation. 
      Based on the literature, we recommend identifying the cricothyroid membrane
      before induction of anaesthesia in all patients. Although inspection and
      palpation may suffice in most patients, the remaining patients will need
      ultrasonographic identification; a service that we should aim at making available
      in all locations where anaesthesia is undertaken and where patients with
      difficult airways could be encountered.
CI  - (c) The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the
      British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please
      email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
FAU - Kristensen, M S
AU  - Kristensen MS
AD  - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Blegdamsvej, Copenhagen DK-2100, 
      Denmark michael.seltz.kristensen@regionh.dk.
FAU - Teoh, W H
AU  - Teoh WH
AD  - Wendy Teoh Pte. Ltd, Private Anaesthesia Practice, Singapore.
FAU - Rudolph, S S
AU  - Rudolph SS
AD  - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Blegdamsvej, Copenhagen DK-2100, 
      Denmark.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
PT  - Review
DEP - 20160717
PL  - England
TA  - Br J Anaesth
JT  - British journal of anaesthesia
JID - 0372541
SB  - IM
MH  - Airway Management/*methods/standards
MH  - Anesthesiology/education
MH  - Clinical Competence
MH  - Cricoid Cartilage/*diagnostic imaging/surgery
MH  - Education, Medical, Continuing/methods
MH  - Evidence-Based Medicine/methods
MH  - Humans
MH  - Palpation/methods
MH  - Patient Positioning/methods
MH  - Thyroid Cartilage/*diagnostic imaging/surgery
MH  - Ultrasonography/methods
OTO - NOTNLM
OT  - airway, anatomy
OT  - airway, complications
OT  - airway, obstruction
OT  - airway, patency
OT  - cricothyrotomy
OT  - tracheostomy
OT  - ultrasonography
EDAT- 2016/07/20 06:00
MHDA- 2018/08/07 06:00
CRDT- 2016/07/20 06:00
PHST- 2016/04/20 00:00 [accepted]
PHST- 2016/07/20 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2016/07/20 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2018/08/07 06:00 [medline]
AID - S0007-0912(17)33767-4 [pii]
AID - 10.1093/bja/aew176 [doi]
PST - ppublish
SO  - Br J Anaesth. 2016 Sep;117 Suppl 1:i39-i48. doi: 10.1093/bja/aew176. Epub 2016
      Jul 17.