PMID- 27307507
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DCOM- 20171227
LR  - 20190921
IS  - 1537-6591 (Electronic)
IS  - 1058-4838 (Linking)
VI  - 63
IP  - 6
DP  - 2016 Sep 15
TI  - Transmitted HIV Drug Resistance Is High and Longstanding in Metropolitan
      Washington, DC.
PG  - 836-843
LID - 10.1093/cid/ciw382 [doi]
AB  - BACKGROUND: Washington, DC, has 2.5% human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
      prevalence, 3.9% among African Americans. Antiretrovirals (ARTs) are the
      cornerstone for treatment and prevention. Monitoring changes in transmitted drug 
      resistance (TDR) is critical for effective HIV care. METHODS: HIV genotype data
      for individuals enrolled in research studies in metropolitan Washington, D.C.,
      were used to identify TDR using the World Health Organization mutation list
      [Bennett DE, Camacho RJ, Otelea D, et al. Drug resistance mutations for
      surveillance of transmitted HIV-1 drug-resistance: 2009 update. PloS One 2009;
      4:e4724]. HIV phylogenies were reconstructed using maximum likelihood and
      Bayesian methods. HIV transmission clusters were supported by 1000 bootstrap
      values >0.70 and posterior probability >0.95 of having a common ancestor.
      RESULTS: Among 710 individuals enrolled in 1994-2013, the median age was 38.6
      years, 46.2% were female, and 53.3% were African-American. TDR was 22.5% among
      566 treatment-naive individuals; 15.8% had nucleoside/nucleotide reverse
      transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) resistance, 9.8% had nonnucleoside
      reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance, and 4.2% had protease
      inhibitor (PI) resistance. Single class TDR was 10.0%, 5.1%, and 1.6% to NRTIs,
      NNRTIs, and PIs. Dual TDR to PI and NRTI was seen in 1.6%, NRTI and NNRTI in
      3.4%, and triple class TDR in 0.9%. TDR frequency decreased from 1994-2006
      (27.1%) to 2007-2013 (19.4%; P = .02). Only 6/79 (7.6%) individuals within
      transmission clusters had evidence of TDR. DISCUSSIONS: We identified high
      prevalence of TDR among HIV-infected individuals in metropolitan Washington, DC, 
      regardless of gender. Active surveillance for TDR is needed to guide ART usage
      and analyses of risk group contributions to HIV transmission and resistance.
CI  - (c) The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious
      Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail
      journals.permissions@oup.com.
FAU - Kassaye, Seble G
AU  - Kassaye SG
AD  - Department of Medicine, Georgetown University, Washington D.C.
FAU - Grossman, Zehava
AU  - Grossman Z
AD  - Department of Epidemiology, Tel Aviv University, Israel.
AD  - HIV Dynamics and Replication Program, National Cancer Institute, Frederick,
      Maryland.
FAU - Balamane, Maya
AU  - Balamane M
AD  - Department of Medicine, Georgetown University, Washington D.C.
FAU - Johnston-White, Betsy
AU  - Johnston-White B
AD  - Department of Medicine, Stanford University, California.
FAU - Liu, Chenglong
AU  - Liu C
AD  - Department of Medicine, Georgetown University, Washington D.C.
FAU - Kumar, Princy
AU  - Kumar P
AD  - Department of Medicine, Georgetown University, Washington D.C.
FAU - Young, Mary
AU  - Young M
AD  - Department of Medicine, Georgetown University, Washington D.C.
FAU - Sneller, Michael C
AU  - Sneller MC
AD  - Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious
      Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda.
FAU - Sereti, Irini
AU  - Sereti I
AD  - Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious
      Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda.
FAU - Dewar, Robin
AU  - Dewar R
AD  - Leidos Biomedical Research, Frederick.
FAU - Rehm, Catherine
AU  - Rehm C
AD  - Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious
      Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda.
FAU - Meyer, William 3rd
AU  - Meyer W 3rd
AD  - Quest Diagnostics, Baltimore, Maryland.
FAU - Shafer, Robert
AU  - Shafer R
AD  - Department of Medicine, Stanford University, California.
FAU - Katzenstein, David
AU  - Katzenstein D
AD  - Department of Medicine, Stanford University, California.
FAU - Maldarelli, Frank
AU  - Maldarelli F
AD  - HIV Dynamics and Replication Program, National Cancer Institute, Frederick,
      Maryland.
LA  - eng
GR  - U01 AI069494/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States
GR  - P30 AI087714/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States
GR  - KL2 TR000102/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/United States
GR  - UL1 TR001409/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/United States
GR  - U01 AI069503/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States
GR  - KL2 RR031974/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/United States
GR  - U01 AI034994/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States
GR  - HHSN261200800001C/RC/CCR NIH HHS/United States
GR  - P30 AI117970/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States
GR  - KL2 TR001432/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/United States
GR  - R01 AI068581/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States
GR  - UM1 AI068634/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States
GR  - UM1 AI068636/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States
GR  - HHSN261200800001E/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States
PT  - Journal Article
PT  - Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
PT  - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
DEP - 20160615
PL  - United States
TA  - Clin Infect Dis
JT  - Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases
      Society of America
JID - 9203213
RN  - 0 (Anti-HIV Agents)
SB  - IM
MH  - Adult
MH  - Anti-HIV Agents/*pharmacology/therapeutic use
MH  - Bayes Theorem
MH  - District of Columbia/epidemiology
MH  - Drug Resistance, Viral/*genetics
MH  - Female
MH  - HIV Infections/drug therapy/*epidemiology/*virology
MH  - *HIV-1/classification/drug effects/genetics
MH  - Humans
MH  - Male
MH  - Phylogeny
MH  - Retrospective Studies
PMC - PMC4996138
OTO - NOTNLM
OT  - *HIV
OT  - *HIV clusters
OT  - *transmission dynamics
OT  - *transmitted drug resistance
OT  - *women
EDAT- 2016/06/17 06:00
MHDA- 2017/12/28 06:00
CRDT- 2016/06/17 06:00
PHST- 2016/03/03 00:00 [received]
PHST- 2016/06/06 00:00 [accepted]
PHST- 2016/06/17 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2016/06/17 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2017/12/28 06:00 [medline]
AID - ciw382 [pii]
AID - 10.1093/cid/ciw382 [doi]
PST - ppublish
SO  - Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Sep 15;63(6):836-843. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciw382. Epub 2016
      Jun 15.