PMID- 27171434
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DCOM- 20170710
LR  - 20170713
IS  - 1932-6203 (Electronic)
IS  - 1932-6203 (Linking)
VI  - 11
IP  - 5
DP  - 2016
TI  - Free-Living Species of Carnivorous Mammals in Poland: Red Fox, Beech Marten, and 
      Raccoon as a Potential Reservoir of Salmonella, Yersinia, Listeria spp. and
      Coagulase-Positive Staphylococcus.
PG  - e0155533
LID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0155533 [doi]
AB  - The objective of the study was to examine a population of free-living carnivorous
      mammals most commonly found in Poland (red fox, beech marten, and raccoon) for
      the occurrence of bacteria that are potentially pathogenic for humans and other
      animal species and to determine their virulence potential (the presence of
      selected virulence genes). From the total pool of isolates obtained (n = 328), we
      selected 90 belonging to species that pose the greatest potential threat to human
      health: Salmonella spp. (n = 19; 4.51%), Yersinia enterocolitica (n = 10; 2.37%),
      Listeria monocytogenes and L. ivanovii (n = 21), and Staphylococcus aureus (n =
      40; 9.5%). The Salmonella spp. isolates represented three different subspecies;
      S. enterica subsp. enterica accounted for a significant proportion (15/19), and
      most of the serotypes isolated (S. Typhimurium, S. Infantis, S. Newport and S.
      Enteritidis) were among the 10 non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes that are most
      often responsible for infections in Europe, including Poland. Y. enterococlitica 
      was detected in the smallest percentage of animals, but 60% of strains among the 
      isolates tested possessed the ail gene, which is responsible for attachment and
      invasion. Potentially pathogenic Listeria species were isolated from approx. 5%
      of the animals. The presence of all tested virulence genes was shown in 35% of L.
      monocytogenes strains, while in the case of the other strains, the genes occurred
      in varying numbers and configurations. The presence of the inlA, inlC, hlyA, and 
      iap genes was noted in all strains, whereas the genes encoding PI-PLC, actin, and
      internalin Imo2821 were present in varying percentages (from 80% to 55%). S.
      aureus was obtained from 40 individuals. Most isolates possessed the hla, hld
      (95% for each), and hlb (32.5%) genes encoding hemolysins as well as the gene
      encoding leukotoxin lukED (70%). In a similar percentage of strains (77.5%), the 
      presence of at least one gene encoding enterotoxin was found, with 12.5%
      exhibiting the presence of egc-like variants. In two animals, we also noted the
      gene encoding the TSST-1 toxin. The results of the study showed that free-living 
      animals may be a significant reservoir of bacteria that are potentially
      pathogenic for humans. The results of the statistical analysis revealed that,
      among the animals species studied, the red fox constitutes the most important
      source of infections.
FAU - Nowakiewicz, Aneta
AU  - Nowakiewicz A
AD  - Sub-Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Institute of Biological Bases of
      Animal Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Life Sciences,
      Lublin, Poland.
FAU - Zieba, Przemyslaw
AU  - Zieba P
AD  - State Veterinary Laboratory, Lublin, Poland.
FAU - Ziolkowska, Grazyna
AU  - Ziolkowska G
AD  - Sub-Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Institute of Biological Bases of
      Animal Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Life Sciences,
      Lublin, Poland.
FAU - Gnat, Sebastian
AU  - Gnat S
AD  - Sub-Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Institute of Biological Bases of
      Animal Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Life Sciences,
      Lublin, Poland.
FAU - Muszynska, Marta
AU  - Muszynska M
AD  - State Veterinary Laboratory, Lublin, Poland.
FAU - Tomczuk, Krzysztof
AU  - Tomczuk K
AD  - Sub-Department of Parasitology and Invasive Diseases, Institute of Biological
      Bases of Animal Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life
      Sciences, Lublin, Poland.
FAU - Majer Dziedzic, Barbara
AU  - Majer Dziedzic B
AD  - Sub-Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Institute of Biological Bases of
      Animal Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Life Sciences,
      Lublin, Poland.
FAU - Ulbrych, Lukasz
AU  - Ulbrych L
AD  - Warta Mouth National Park, Gorzyca, Poland.
FAU - Troscianczyk, Aleksandra
AU  - Troscianczyk A
AD  - Sub-Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Institute of Biological Bases of
      Animal Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Life Sciences,
      Lublin, Poland.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20160512
PL  - United States
TA  - PLoS One
JT  - PloS one
JID - 101285081
RN  - 0 (Coagulase)
SB  - IM
MH  - Animals
MH  - Carnivora/*microbiology
MH  - Coagulase/metabolism
MH  - Disease Reservoirs/*microbiology
MH  - Foxes/*microbiology
MH  - Listeria/isolation & purification/pathogenicity/*physiology
MH  - Poland/epidemiology
MH  - Prevalence
MH  - Raccoons/*microbiology
MH  - Salmonella/*physiology
MH  - Species Specificity
MH  - Staphylococcus/*physiology
MH  - Virulence
MH  - Yersinia/*physiology
PMC - PMC4865137
EDAT- 2016/05/14 06:00
MHDA- 2017/07/14 06:00
CRDT- 2016/05/13 06:00
PHST- 2016/02/01 00:00 [received]
PHST- 2016/04/29 00:00 [accepted]
PHST- 2016/05/13 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2016/05/14 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2017/07/14 06:00 [medline]
AID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0155533 [doi]
AID - PONE-D-16-00967 [pii]
PST - epublish
SO  - PLoS One. 2016 May 12;11(5):e0155533. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0155533.
      eCollection 2016.