PMID- 26909555
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DCOM- 20160714
LR  - 20170220
IS  - 1932-6203 (Electronic)
IS  - 1932-6203 (Linking)
VI  - 11
IP  - 2
DP  - 2016
TI  - Transcriptional Profiling of Coxiella burnetii Reveals Extensive Cell Wall
      Remodeling in the Small Cell Variant Developmental Form.
PG  - e0149957
LID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0149957 [doi]
AB  - A hallmark of Coxiella burnetii, the bacterial cause of human Q fever, is a
      biphasic developmental cycle that generates biologically, ultrastructurally, and 
      compositionally distinct large cell variant (LCV) and small cell variant (SCV)
      forms. LCVs are replicating, exponential phase forms while SCVs are
      non-replicating, stationary phase forms. The SCV has several properties, such as 
      a condensed nucleoid and an unusual cell envelope, suspected of conferring
      enhanced environmental stability. To identify genetic determinants of the LCV to 
      SCV transition, we profiled the C. burnetii transcriptome at 3 (early LCV), 5
      (late LCV), 7 (intermediate forms), 14 (early SCV), and 21 days (late SCV)
      post-infection of Vero epithelial cells. Relative to early LCV, genes
      downregulated in the SCV were primarily involved in intermediary metabolism.
      Upregulated SCV genes included those involved in oxidative stress responses,
      arginine acquisition, and cell wall remodeling. A striking transcriptional
      signature of the SCV was induction (>7-fold) of five genes encoding predicted L,D
      transpeptidases that catalyze nonclassical 3-3 peptide cross-links in
      peptidoglycan (PG), a modification that can influence several biological traits
      in bacteria. Accordingly, of cross-links identified, muropeptide analysis showed 
      PG of SCV with 46% 3-3 cross-links as opposed to 16% 3-3 cross-links for LCV.
      Moreover, electron microscopy revealed SCV with an unusually dense cell
      wall/outer membrane complex as compared to LCV with its clearly distinguishable
      periplasm and inner and outer membranes. Collectively, these results indicate the
      SCV produces a unique transcriptome with a major component directed towards
      remodeling a PG layer that likely contributes to Coxiella's environmental
      resistance.
FAU - Sandoz, Kelsi M
AU  - Sandoz KM
AD  - Coxiella Pathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Bacteriology, Rocky Mountain
      Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National
      Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, United States of America.
FAU - Popham, David L
AU  - Popham DL
AD  - Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, United
      States of America.
FAU - Beare, Paul A
AU  - Beare PA
AD  - Coxiella Pathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Bacteriology, Rocky Mountain
      Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National
      Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, United States of America.
FAU - Sturdevant, Daniel E
AU  - Sturdevant DE
AD  - Genomics Unit, Research Technologies Branch, Rocky Mountain Laboratories,
      National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of
      Health, Hamilton, Montana, United States of America.
FAU - Hansen, Bryan
AU  - Hansen B
AD  - Electron Microscopy Unit, Research Technologies Branch, Rocky Mountain
      Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National
      Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, United States of America.
FAU - Nair, Vinod
AU  - Nair V
AD  - Electron Microscopy Unit, Research Technologies Branch, Rocky Mountain
      Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National
      Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, United States of America.
FAU - Heinzen, Robert A
AU  - Heinzen RA
AD  - Coxiella Pathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Bacteriology, Rocky Mountain
      Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National
      Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, United States of America.
LA  - eng
GR  - Intramural NIH HHS/United States
PT  - Journal Article
PT  - Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
DEP - 20160224
PL  - United States
TA  - PLoS One
JT  - PloS one
JID - 101285081
SB  - IM
MH  - Animals
MH  - Cell Wall/genetics/*metabolism
MH  - Cercopithecus aethiops
MH  - Coxiella burnetii/genetics/*metabolism/pathogenicity
MH  - Gene Expression Profiling
MH  - *Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
MH  - Humans
MH  - *Oxidative Stress
MH  - Q Fever/genetics/*metabolism
MH  - *Transcriptome
MH  - Vero Cells
PMC - PMC4766238
EDAT- 2016/02/26 06:00
MHDA- 2016/07/15 06:00
CRDT- 2016/02/25 06:00
PHST- 2015/11/17 00:00 [received]
PHST- 2016/02/05 00:00 [accepted]
PHST- 2016/02/25 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2016/02/26 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2016/07/15 06:00 [medline]
AID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0149957 [doi]
AID - PONE-D-15-50255 [pii]
PST - epublish
SO  - PLoS One. 2016 Feb 24;11(2):e0149957. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149957.
      eCollection 2016.