PMID- 26799450
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DCOM- 20161213
LR  - 20161230
IS  - 1531-8257 (Electronic)
IS  - 0885-3185 (Linking)
VI  - 31
IP  - 2
DP  - 2016 Feb
TI  - Gut Feelings About alpha-Synuclein in Gastrointestinal Biopsies: Biomarker in the
      Making?
PG  - 193-202
LID - 10.1002/mds.26480 [doi]
AB  - In recent years, several studies have investigated the potential of
      immunohistochemical detection of alpha-synuclein in the gastrointestinal tract to
      diagnose Parkinson's disease (PD). Although methodological heterogeneity has
      hindered comparability between studies, it has become increasingly apparent that 
      the high sensitivity and specificity reported in preliminary studies has not been
      sustained in subsequent large-scale studies. What constitutes pathological
      alpha-synuclein in the alimentary canal that could distinguish between PD
      patients and controls and how this can be reliably detected represent key
      outstanding questions in the field. In this review, we will comment on and
      compare the variable technical aspects from previous studies, and by highlighting
      some advantages and shortcomings we hope to delineate a standardized approach to 
      facilitate the consensus criteria urgently needed in the field. Furthermore, we
      will describe alternative detection techniques to conventional
      immunohistochemistry that have recently emerged and may facilitate ease of
      interpretation and reliability of gastrointestinal alpha-synuclein detection.
      Such techniques have the potential to detect the presence of pathological
      alpha-synuclein and include the paraffin-embedded tissue blot, the proximity
      ligation assay, the protein misfolding cyclic amplification technique, and the
      real-time quaking-induced conversion assay. Finally, we will review 2
      nonsynonymous theories that have driven enteric alpha-synuclein research, namely,
      (1) that alpha-synuclein propagates in a prion-like fashion from the peripheral
      nervous system to the brain via vagal connections and (2) that gastrointestinal
      alpha-synuclein deposition may be used as a clinically useful biomarker in PD.
CI  - (c) 2016 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on 
      behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
FAU - Ruffmann, Claudio
AU  - Ruffmann C
AD  - Oxford Parkinson's Disease Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
AD  - Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Academic Unit of Neuropathology,
      University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
FAU - Parkkinen, Laura
AU  - Parkkinen L
AD  - Oxford Parkinson's Disease Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
AD  - Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Academic Unit of Neuropathology,
      University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
PT  - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
PT  - Review
DEP - 20160122
PL  - United States
TA  - Mov Disord
JT  - Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society
JID - 8610688
RN  - 0 (Biomarkers)
RN  - 0 (alpha-Synuclein)
SB  - IM
MH  - Biomarkers/*metabolism
MH  - Gastrointestinal Tract/*metabolism
MH  - Humans
MH  - Parkinson Disease/*diagnosis
MH  - alpha-Synuclein/*metabolism
PMC - PMC4755164
OTO - NOTNLM
OT  - Parkinson's disease
OT  - biomarker
OT  - biopsy
OT  - enteric nervous system
OT  - alpha-synuclein
EDAT- 2016/01/23 06:00
MHDA- 2016/12/15 06:00
CRDT- 2016/01/23 06:00
PHST- 2015/08/13 00:00 [received]
PHST- 2015/10/12 00:00 [revised]
PHST- 2015/10/15 00:00 [accepted]
PHST- 2016/01/23 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2016/01/23 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2016/12/15 06:00 [medline]
AID - 10.1002/mds.26480 [doi]
PST - ppublish
SO  - Mov Disord. 2016 Feb;31(2):193-202. doi: 10.1002/mds.26480. Epub 2016 Jan 22.