PMID- 30734361
OWN - NLM
STAT- Publisher
LR  - 20190208
IS  - 1464-5491 (Electronic)
IS  - 0742-3071 (Linking)
DP  - 2019 Feb 7
TI  - Text-message responsiveness to blood glucose monitoring reminders is associated
      with HbA1c benefit in teenagers with Type 1 diabetes.
LID - 10.1111/dme.13929 [doi]
AB  - AIMS: To evaluate an 18-month text-messaging intervention in teenagers with Type 
      1 diabetes and to assess factors associated with text responsiveness and
      glycaemic benefit. METHODS: Teenagers with diabetes (N=147), aged 13-17 years,
      received two-way text reminders at self-selected times to check blood glucose
      levels and reply with blood glucose results. RESULTS: At baseline, the
      participants (48% boys, 78% white, 63% pump-treated) had a mean +/- sd age of
      14.9 +/- 1.3 years, diabetes duration of 7.1 +/- 3.9 years and HbA1c
      concentration of 69+/-12 mmol/mol (8.5+/-1.1%). The mean proportion of days with 
      >/=1 blood glucose response declined over time (0-6 months, 60+/-26% of days,
      7-12 months, 53+/-31% of days, 13-18 months, 43+/-33% of days). Over 18 months,
      49% responded with >/=1 blood glucose result on >/=50% of days (high responders).
      Regression analysis controlling for baseline HbA1c revealed no significant change
      in HbA1c from baseline to 18 months in high responders (P=0.54) compared with a
      significant HbA1c increase in low responders (+0.3%, P=0.01). In participants
      with baseline HbA1c >/=64 mmol/mol (>/=8%), high responders were 2.5 times more
      likely than low responders to have a clinically significant [>/=5.5 mmol/mol
      (>/=0.5%)] HbA1c decrease over 18 months (P<0.05). In participants with baseline 
      HbA1c <64 mmol/mol(<8%), high responders were 5.7 times more likely than low
      responders to have an 18-month HbA1c <58 mmol/mol (<7.5%; P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS:
      Teenagers with Type 1 diabetes who responded to text reminders on >/=50% of days 
      over 18 months experienced clinically significant glycaemic benefit. There
      remains a need to tailor interventions to maintain teenager engagement and
      optimize improvements. This article is protected by copyright. All rights
      reserved.
CI  - This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FAU - McGill, D E
AU  - McGill DE
AD  - Section on Clinical, Behavioral and Outcomes Research, Pediatric, Adolescent and 
      Young Adult Section, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
FAU - Volkening, L K
AU  - Volkening LK
AD  - Section on Clinical, Behavioral and Outcomes Research, Pediatric, Adolescent and 
      Young Adult Section, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
FAU - Butler, D A
AU  - Butler DA
AD  - Section on Clinical, Behavioral and Outcomes Research, Pediatric, Adolescent and 
      Young Adult Section, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
FAU - Wasserman, R M
AU  - Wasserman RM
AD  - Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.
FAU - Anderson, B J
AU  - Anderson BJ
AD  - Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.
FAU - Laffel, L M
AU  - Laffel LM
AD  - Section on Clinical, Behavioral and Outcomes Research, Pediatric, Adolescent and 
      Young Adult Section, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20190207
PL  - England
TA  - Diabet Med
JT  - Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association
JID - 8500858
EDAT- 2019/02/09 06:00
MHDA- 2019/02/09 06:00
CRDT- 2019/02/09 06:00
PHST- 2019/02/09 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2019/02/09 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2019/02/09 06:00 [medline]
AID - 10.1111/dme.13929 [doi]
PST - aheadofprint
SO  - Diabet Med. 2019 Feb 7. doi: 10.1111/dme.13929.

PMID- 30734352
OWN - NLM
STAT- Publisher
LR  - 20190208
IS  - 1464-5491 (Electronic)
IS  - 0742-3071 (Linking)
DP  - 2019 Feb 7
TI  - Reducing risk of Type 2 diabetes in HIV: a mixed-methods investigation of the
      STOP-Diabetes diet and physical activity intervention.
LID - 10.1111/dme.13927 [doi]
AB  - AIM: To conduct a mixed-methods feasibility study of the effectiveness and
      acceptability of an individualized diet and physical activity intervention
      designed to reduce the risk of Type 2 diabetes experienced by people living with 
      HIV. METHODS: Participants with impaired fasting glucose and HIV were invited to 
      take part in a 6-month diet and physical activity intervention. Individualized
      advice to achieve 10 lifestyle goals was delivered monthly. Diabetes risk was
      assessed pre- and post-intervention by measurement of the glucose and insulin
      response to a 3-h meal tolerance test. Six-month change was analysed using paired
      t-tests. Research interviews exploring the acceptability of the intervention and 
      factors influencing behaviour change were conducted with those who participated
      in the intervention, and those who declined participation. RESULTS: The
      intervention (n=28) significantly reduced the following: glucose and insulin,
      both fasting and postprandial incremental area under the curve (glucose 7.9% and 
      17.6%; insulin 22.7% and 31.4%, respectively); weight (4.6%); waist circumference
      (6.2%); systolic blood pressure (7.4%); and triglycerides (36.7%). Interview data
      demonstrated the acceptability of the intervention. However, participants
      expressed concern that deliberate weight loss might lead to disclosure of HIV
      status or association with AIDS-related illness. The belief that antiretroviral
      medications drove diabetes risk was associated with declining study participation
      or achieving fewer goals. CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated the beneficial
      effects of a lifestyle intervention in mitigating the increased risk of Type 2
      diabetes associated with HIV. Future interventions should be designed to further 
      reduce the unique barriers that prevent successful outcomes in this cohort. This 
      article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
CI  - This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FAU - Duncan, A D
AU  - Duncan AD
AD  - King's College, London.
AD  - Guy's and St, Thomas' Hospital NHS Foundation Trust.
FAU - Peters, B S
AU  - Peters BS
AD  - King's College, London.
AD  - Guy's and St, Thomas' Hospital NHS Foundation Trust.
FAU - Rivas, C
AU  - Rivas C
AD  - University College, London, UK.
FAU - Goff, L M
AU  - Goff LM
AD  - King's College, London.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20190207
PL  - England
TA  - Diabet Med
JT  - Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association
JID - 8500858
EDAT- 2019/02/09 06:00
MHDA- 2019/02/09 06:00
CRDT- 2019/02/09 06:00
PHST- 2019/02/09 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2019/02/09 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2019/02/09 06:00 [medline]
AID - 10.1111/dme.13927 [doi]
PST - aheadofprint
SO  - Diabet Med. 2019 Feb 7. doi: 10.1111/dme.13927.

PMID- 30729567
OWN - NLM
STAT- Publisher
LR  - 20190207
IS  - 1464-5491 (Electronic)
IS  - 0742-3071 (Linking)
DP  - 2019 Feb 6
TI  - History of gestational diabetes mellitus and postpartum maternal retinal
      microvascular structure and function.
LID - 10.1111/dme.13928 [doi]
AB  - Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common complications in
      pregnancy. The presence of GDM identifies women with increased risks of long-term
      health problems after delivery, including Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular
      diseases (CVD). Because retinal microcirculation may mirror systemic
      microcirculation, exploring microvascular changes after delivery among women with
      or without a history of GDM might be key to better understanding such
      pathophysiological mechanisms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights
      reserved.
CI  - This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FAU - Yee, K H
AU  - Yee KH
AD  - College of Medicine, Nursing& Health Sciences, National University of Ireland
      (Galway), Galway, Ireland.
FAU - Tan, K H
AU  - Tan KH
AD  - Health Services Systems Research Programme, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore.
AD  - Division of O&G, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore.
FAU - Aris, I M
AU  - Aris IM
AD  - Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Harvard
      Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
AD  - Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine,
      National University of Singapore.
FAU - Lamoureux, E L
AU  - Lamoureux EL
AD  - Health Services Systems Research Programme, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore.
AD  - Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore.
FAU - Chong, Y S
AU  - Chong YS
AD  - Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine,
      National University of Singapore.
FAU - Wang, J J
AU  - Wang JJ
AD  - Centre for Clinician-Scientist Development, Singapore.
FAU - Wong, T Y
AU  - Wong TY
AD  - Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore.
FAU - Li, L-J
AU  - Li LJ
AD  - Division of O&G, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore.
AD  - Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore.
AD  - O&G ACP, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20190206
PL  - England
TA  - Diabet Med
JT  - Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association
JID - 8500858
EDAT- 2019/02/08 06:00
MHDA- 2019/02/08 06:00
CRDT- 2019/02/08 06:00
PHST- 2019/02/08 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2019/02/08 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2019/02/08 06:00 [medline]
AID - 10.1111/dme.13928 [doi]
PST - aheadofprint
SO  - Diabet Med. 2019 Feb 6. doi: 10.1111/dme.13928.

PMID- 30723968
OWN - NLM
STAT- Publisher
LR  - 20190206
IS  - 1464-5491 (Electronic)
IS  - 0742-3071 (Linking)
DP  - 2019 Feb 5
TI  - Women's views on lifestyle changes to reduce the risk of developing Type 2
      diabetes after gestational diabetes: a systematic review, qualitative synthesis
      and recommendations for practice.
LID - 10.1111/dme.13926 [doi]
AB  - AIMS: To synthesize systematically the literature that focuses on the views of
      women with a history of gestational diabetes on reducing their risk of developing
      diabetes postpartum through lifestyle and behaviour changes. METHODS: We
      identified qualitative studies that examined the views of women with a history of
      gestational diabetes towards healthy eating and physical activity, Type 2
      diabetes risk management or their experience of a diabetes prevention programme, 
      and conducted a thematic synthesis to develop descriptive and then analytical
      themes. We evaluated the quality of each study and the confidence that we had in 
      its findings using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programmes criteria and the
      Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation-Confidence in
      Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative Research. RESULTS: We included 21 articles
      after screening 23 160 citations and 129 full texts. We identified six themes of 
      interacting influences on postpartum behaviour: role as mother and priorities;
      social support; demands of life; personal preferences and experiences; risk
      perception and information; and finances and resources (plus preferred format of 
      interventions). These factors inhibited many women from addressing their own
      health, while they motivated others to persevere. We also developed 20
      recommendations, most with high or moderate confidence, for effective promotion
      of healthy lifestyles in this population. CONCLUSIONS: Many factors hinder
      healthy lifestyles after gestational diabetes, yet how women interpret them can
      motivate or prevent changes that reduce diabetes risk. As our recommendations
      emphasize, women's experiences and needs should be considered when designing
      strategies to promote healthier lifestyles in this population. This article is
      protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
CI  - This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FAU - Dennison, R A
AU  - Dennison RA
AD  - Primary Care Unit, Department of Public Health and Primary Care.
FAU - Ward, R
AU  - Ward R
AD  - Primary Care Unit, Department of Public Health and Primary Care.
FAU - Griffin, S
AU  - Griffin S
AD  - Primary Care Unit, Department of Public Health and Primary Care.
AD  - MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
FAU - Usher-Smith, J
AU  - Usher-Smith J
AD  - Primary Care Unit, Department of Public Health and Primary Care.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20190205
PL  - England
TA  - Diabet Med
JT  - Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association
JID - 8500858
EDAT- 2019/02/07 06:00
MHDA- 2019/02/07 06:00
CRDT- 2019/02/07 06:00
PHST- 2019/02/07 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2019/02/07 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2019/02/07 06:00 [medline]
AID - 10.1111/dme.13926 [doi]
PST - aheadofprint
SO  - Diabet Med. 2019 Feb 5. doi: 10.1111/dme.13926.

PMID- 30723961
OWN - NLM
STAT- Publisher
LR  - 20190206
IS  - 1464-5491 (Electronic)
IS  - 0742-3071 (Linking)
DP  - 2019 Feb 5
TI  - Relationship between fasting plasma glucose and incidence of diabetes in children
      and adolescents.
LID - 10.1111/dme.13925 [doi]
AB  - AIM: To investigate the appropriate fasting plasma glucose threshold by which to 
      define prediabetes in children and adolescents, based on its ability to predict
      incident paediatric diabetes. METHODS: In a nationwide survey of diabetes and
      renal disease conducted between 1992 and 2000 in all school-aged children in
      Taiwan, those with abnormal results in repeated urine tests received further
      physical examination and blood tests. Students who had blood tests for at least
      two time points were selected for the present study (N = 12 119). The incidence
      of paediatric diabetes, adjusted hazard ratio and predictive power of fasting
      plasma glucose were analysed. RESULTS: The incidence of paediatric diabetes
      increased with increasing fasting plasma glucose levels. Groups with fasting
      plasma glucose >5.6 mmol/l had a higher adjusted hazard ratio. The adjusted
      hazard ratio of incident diabetes for participants with higher fasting plasma
      glucose rose continuously when using a higher threshold for fasting plasma
      glucose. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for fasting
      plasma glucose was 0.628 for predicting paediatric diabetes. The association
      between fasting plasma glucose and incident paediatric diabetes and the area
      under the receiver-operating characteristic curve were similar in boys and girls 
      and were higher in the age group 12-18 years. According to receiver-operating
      characteristic curve analysis, the optimal thresholds, sensitivity and
      specificity were 4.75 mmol/l, 65% and 51%, respectively, for those aged 6-11
      years and 5.19 mmol/l, 60% and 73%, respectively, for those aged 12-18 years.
      CONCLUSION: Fasting plasma glucose is associated with the incidence of paediatric
      diabetes. The results of the present study can be used as reference data to
      suggest a cut-off value to define paediatric prediabetes. This article is
      protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
CI  - This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FAU - Yang, C-Y
AU  - Yang CY
AD  - Department of Medical Imaging, E-Da Hospital, Kaohsiung.
AD  - School of Medicine for International Students, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung.
AD  - Department of Medical Imaging, National Taiwan University Hospital and National
      Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei.
FAU - Li, H-Y
AU  - Li HY
AD  - Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital and National
      Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei.
FAU - Sung, F-C
AU  - Sung FC
AD  - Institute of Environmental Health China, Medical University College of Public
      Health, Taichung.
FAU - Tan, E Chia-Hui
AU  - Tan EC
AD  - National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Ministry of Health and Welfare.
AD  - Institute of Hospital and Health Care Administration, National Yang-Ming
      University.
FAU - Wei, J-N
AU  - Wei JN
AD  - Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan.
FAU - Chuang, L-M
AU  - Chuang LM
AD  - Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital and National
      Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei.
AD  - Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Taiwan University College of
      Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20190205
PL  - England
TA  - Diabet Med
JT  - Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association
JID - 8500858
EDAT- 2019/02/07 06:00
MHDA- 2019/02/07 06:00
CRDT- 2019/02/07 06:00
PHST- 2019/02/07 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2019/02/07 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2019/02/07 06:00 [medline]
AID - 10.1111/dme.13925 [doi]
PST - aheadofprint
SO  - Diabet Med. 2019 Feb 5. doi: 10.1111/dme.13925.

PMID- 30710451
OWN - NLM
STAT- Publisher
LR  - 20190202
IS  - 1464-5491 (Electronic)
IS  - 0742-3071 (Linking)
DP  - 2019 Feb 2
TI  - An Irish National Diabetes in Pregnancy Audit: aiming for best outcomes for women
      with diabetes.
LID - 10.1111/dme.13923 [doi]
AB  - AIMS: The purpose of this study was to identify the number of pregnancies
      affected by pre-gestational diabetes in the Republic of Ireland; to report on
      pregnancy outcomes and to identify areas for improvement in care delivery and
      clinical outcomes. METHODS: Healthcare professionals caring for women with
      pre-gestational diabetes during pregnancy were invited to participate in this
      retrospective study. Data pertaining to 185 pregnancies in women attending 15
      antenatal centres nationally were collected and analysed. Included pregnancies
      had an estimated date of delivery between 1 January and 31 December 2015.
      RESULTS: The cohort consisted of 122 (65.9%) women with Type 1 diabetes and 56
      (30.3%) women with Type 2 diabetes. The remaining 7 (3.8%) pregnancies were to
      women with maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) (n = 6) and
      post-transplant diabetes (n = 1). Overall women were poorly prepared for
      pregnancy and lapses in specific areas of service delivery including
      pre-pregnancy care and retinal screening were identified. The majority of
      pregnancies 156 (84.3%) resulted in a live birth. A total of 103 (65.5%) women
      had a caesarean delivery and 58 (36.9%) infants were large for gestational age.
      CONCLUSIONS: This audit identifies clear areas for improvement in delivery of
      care for women with diabetes in the Republic of Ireland before and during
      pregnancy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
CI  - This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FAU - Egan, A M
AU  - Egan AM
AD  - University Hospital Galway, Galway.
FAU - Brassill, M J
AU  - Brassill MJ
AD  - South Tipperary General Hospital, Clonmel.
FAU - Brosnan, E
AU  - Brosnan E
AD  - Mayo University Hospital, Castlebar.
FAU - Carmody, L
AU  - Carmody L
AD  - University Hospital Galway, Galway.
FAU - Clarke, H
AU  - Clarke H
AD  - Portiuncla University Hospital, Ballinasloe.
FAU - Coogan Kelly, C
AU  - Coogan Kelly C
AD  - St Luke's General Hospital, Kilkenny.
FAU - Culliney, L
AU  - Culliney L
AD  - Cork University Hospital, Cork.
FAU - Durkan, M
AU  - Durkan M
AD  - Bon Secours Hospital, Cork.
FAU - Fenlon, M
AU  - Fenlon M
AD  - Wexford General Hospital, Wexford.
FAU - Ferry, P
AU  - Ferry P
AD  - Letterkenny University Hospital, Letterkenny.
FAU - Hanlon, G
AU  - Hanlon G
AD  - St Luke's General Hospital, Kilkenny.
FAU - Higgins, T
AU  - Higgins T
AD  - University Hospital Kerry, Tralee.
FAU - Hoashi, S
AU  - Hoashi S
AD  - Midland Regional Hospital, Mullingar.
FAU - Khamis, A
AU  - Khamis A
AD  - Letterkenny University Hospital, Letterkenny.
FAU - Kinsley, B
AU  - Kinsley B
AD  - Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital, Dublin.
FAU - Kinsley, T
AU  - Kinsley T
AD  - Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital, Dublin.
FAU - Kirwan, B
AU  - Kirwan B
AD  - University Hospital Galway, Galway.
FAU - Liew, A
AU  - Liew A
AD  - Portiuncla University Hospital, Ballinasloe.
FAU - McGurk, C
AU  - McGurk C
AD  - St Luke's General Hospital, Kilkenny.
FAU - McHugh, C
AU  - McHugh C
AD  - Sligo University Hospital, Sligo.
FAU - Murphy, M S
AU  - Murphy MS
AD  - South Infirmary, Victoria University Hospital, Cork.
FAU - Murphy, P
AU  - Murphy P
AD  - Cork University Hospital, Cork.
FAU - O'Halloran, D
AU  - O'Halloran D
AD  - Cork University Hospital, Cork.
FAU - O'Mahony, L
AU  - O'Mahony L
AD  - Cork University Hospital, Cork.
FAU - O'Sullivan, E
AU  - O'Sullivan E
AD  - Bon Secours Hospital, Cork.
FAU - Nolan, M
AU  - Nolan M
AD  - University Hospital Kerry, Tralee.
FAU - Peter, M
AU  - Peter M
AD  - University Hospital Waterford, Waterford, Republic of Ireland.
FAU - Roberts, G
AU  - Roberts G
AD  - University Hospital Waterford, Waterford, Republic of Ireland.
FAU - Smyth, A
AU  - Smyth A
AD  - Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital, Dublin.
FAU - Todd, M
AU  - Todd M
AD  - Mayo University Hospital, Castlebar.
FAU - Tuthill, A
AU  - Tuthill A
AD  - Cork University Hospital, Cork.
FAU - Wan Mahmood, W A
AU  - Wan Mahmood WA
AD  - Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital, Dublin.
FAU - Yousif, O
AU  - Yousif O
AD  - Wexford General Hospital, Wexford.
FAU - Dunne, F P
AU  - Dunne FP
AD  - University Hospital Galway, Galway.
CN  - National Diabetes in Pregnancy Audit working group
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20190202
PL  - England
TA  - Diabet Med
JT  - Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association
JID - 8500858
EDAT- 2019/02/03 06:00
MHDA- 2019/02/03 06:00
CRDT- 2019/02/03 06:00
PHST- 2019/02/03 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2019/02/03 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2019/02/03 06:00 [medline]
AID - 10.1111/dme.13923 [doi]
PST - aheadofprint
SO  - Diabet Med. 2019 Feb 2. doi: 10.1111/dme.13923.

PMID- 30710449
OWN - NLM
STAT- Publisher
LR  - 20190202
IS  - 1464-5491 (Electronic)
IS  - 0742-3071 (Linking)
DP  - 2019 Feb 2
TI  - A modelling study of the budget impact of improved glycaemic control in adults
      with Type 1 diabetes in the UK.
LID - 10.1111/dme.13924 [doi]
AB  - AIMS: To develop a novel interactive budget impact model that assesses
      affordability of diabetes treatments in specific populations, and to test the
      model in a hypothetical scenario by estimating cost savings resulting from
      reduction in HbA1c from >/=69 mmol/mol (8.5%) to a target of 53 mmol/mol (7.0%)
      in adults with Type 1 diabetes in the UK. METHODS: A dynamic, interactive model
      was created using the projected incidence and progression over a 5-year horizon
      of diabetes-related complications (micro- and macrovascular disease, severe
      hypoglycaemia and diabetic ketoacidosis) for different HbA1c levels, with
      flexible input of population size, complications and therapy costs, HbA1c
      distribution and other variables. The model took a National Health Service and
      societal perspective. RESULTS: The model was developed, and in the proposed
      hypothetical situation, reductions in complications and expected costs evaluated.
      Achievement of target HbA1c in individuals with HbA1c >/=69 mmol/mol (8.5%) would
      reduce expected chronic complications from 6.8 to 1.2 events per 100
      person-years, and diabetic ketoacidosis from 14.5 to 1.0 events per 100
      person-years. Potential cumulative direct cost savings achievable in the modelled
      population were estimated at pound687 m over 5 years ( pound5,585/person), with
      total (direct and indirect) savings of pound1,034 m ( pound8,400/person).
      CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of strategies aimed at achieving target glucose
      levels in people with Type 1 diabetes in the UK has the potential to drive a
      significant reduction in complication costs. This estimate may provide insights
      into the potential for investment in achieving savings through improved diabetes 
      care in the UK. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
CI  - This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FAU - Choudhary, P
AU  - Choudhary P
AD  - King's College London School of Life Course Sciences, London, UK.
FAU - de Portu, S
AU  - de Portu S
AD  - Medtronic International Trading, Tolochenaz, Switzerland.
FAU - Delbaere, A
AU  - Delbaere A
AD  - Medtronic International Trading, Tolochenaz, Switzerland.
FAU - Lyon, J
AU  - Lyon J
AD  - Medtronic UK, Watford, UK.
FAU - Pickup, J C
AU  - Pickup JC
AD  - King's College London School of Life Course Sciences, London, UK.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20190202
PL  - England
TA  - Diabet Med
JT  - Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association
JID - 8500858
EDAT- 2019/02/03 06:00
MHDA- 2019/02/03 06:00
CRDT- 2019/02/03 06:00
PHST- 2019/02/03 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2019/02/03 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2019/02/03 06:00 [medline]
AID - 10.1111/dme.13924 [doi]
PST - aheadofprint
SO  - Diabet Med. 2019 Feb 2. doi: 10.1111/dme.13924.

PMID- 30706577
OWN - NLM
STAT- Publisher
LR  - 20190201
IS  - 1464-5491 (Electronic)
IS  - 0742-3071 (Linking)
DP  - 2019 Feb 1
TI  - Tissue biopsy in the diagnosis of chronic tuberculous wounds in diabetes
      mellitus.
LID - 10.1111/dme.13920 [doi]
AB  - A 70-year-old man with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and a history of tuberculosis
      sought treatment for a dark red mass on his right abdomen of 7 months' duration. 
      A chest X-ray showed increased texture in both lungs but no parenchymal lesions. 
      After informed consent had been obtained, a biopsy of the hypochondriac mass was 
      taken, which revealed intradermal pyogenic granulomatous inflammation; acid-fast 
      staining revealed a few acid-fast bacilli. Thus, the diagnosis of Mycobacterium
      tuberculosis infection of the wound was considered conclusive. This article is
      protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
CI  - This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FAU - Zhang, R
AU  - Zhang R
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, Xinqiao Hospital, Army Medical University,
      Chongqing, China.
FAU - Wang, H
AU  - Wang H
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, Xinqiao Hospital, Army Medical University,
      Chongqing, China.
FAU - Tong, Q
AU  - Tong Q
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, Xinqiao Hospital, Army Medical University,
      Chongqing, China.
FAU - Xu, J
AU  - Xu J
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, Xinqiao Hospital, Army Medical University,
      Chongqing, China.
FAU - Long, M
AU  - Long M
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, Xinqiao Hospital, Army Medical University,
      Chongqing, China.
FAU - Wang, X
AU  - Wang X
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, Xinqiao Hospital, Army Medical University,
      Chongqing, China.
FAU - Wang, M
AU  - Wang M
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, Xinqiao Hospital, Army Medical University,
      Chongqing, China.
FAU - Zhou, X
AU  - Zhou X
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, Xinqiao Hospital, Army Medical University,
      Chongqing, China.
FAU - Zheng, H
AU  - Zheng H
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, Xinqiao Hospital, Army Medical University,
      Chongqing, China.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20190201
PL  - England
TA  - Diabet Med
JT  - Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association
JID - 8500858
EDAT- 2019/02/02 06:00
MHDA- 2019/02/02 06:00
CRDT- 2019/02/02 06:00
PHST- 2019/02/02 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2019/02/02 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2019/02/02 06:00 [medline]
AID - 10.1111/dme.13920 [doi]
PST - aheadofprint
SO  - Diabet Med. 2019 Feb 1. doi: 10.1111/dme.13920.

PMID- 30706538
OWN - NLM
STAT- Publisher
LR  - 20190215
IS  - 1464-5491 (Electronic)
IS  - 0742-3071 (Linking)
DP  - 2019 Feb 1
TI  - Accumulation of advanced glycation end products in the skin is accelerated in
      relation to insulin resistance in people with Type 1 diabetes mellitus.
LID - 10.1111/dme.13921 [doi]
AB  - AIM: To evaluate the association between skin advanced glycation end products and
      insulin resistance in Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: The study group consisted of 476 
      people with Type 1 diabetes (247 men) with a median (interquartile range) age of 
      42 (33-53) years, disease duration of 24 (19-32) years and HbA1c concentration of
      63 (55-74) mmol/mol [7.9 (7.2-8.9)%]. Insulin resistance was assessed according
      to estimated glucose disposal rate. Advanced glycation product accumulation in
      the skin was measured by autofluorescence using an AGE Reader. The group was
      divided into three subgroups based on estimated glucose disposal rate tertiles
      (<5.5, 5.5-9.5 and >9.5 mg/kg/min, respectively). The higher the estimated
      glucose disposal rate, the lower the insulin resistance. RESULTS: Skin
      autofluoresence level decreased with increasing estimated glucose disposal rate; 
      comparing people below the lower tertile, with those between the first and third 
      tertiles, and with those above the third tertile, the median autofluoresences
      were, respectively: 2.5 (2.2-2.9) vs 2.3 (2.0-2.7) vs 2.1 (1.9-2.5) AU
      (P<0.0001). A negative correlation was observed between skin autofluorescence and
      estimated glucose disposal rate (Spearman's correlation coefficient=-0.31, P
      <0.001). Multiple logistic regression showed a significant, two-way association
      of insulin resistance with skin autofluorescence. CONCLUSION: The results of this
      study offer strong evidence for a two-way relationship between insulin resistance
      and advanced glycation product accumulation in the skin in people with Type 1
      diabetes.
CI  - (c) 2019 Diabetes UK.
FAU - Uruska, A
AU  - Uruska A
AUID- ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4631-1176
AD  - Department of Internal Medicine and Diabetology, Poznan University of Medical
      Sciences, Poznan, Poland.
FAU - Gandecka, A
AU  - Gandecka A
AD  - Department of Internal Medicine and Diabetology, Poznan University of Medical
      Sciences, Poznan, Poland.
FAU - Araszkiewicz, A
AU  - Araszkiewicz A
AD  - Department of Internal Medicine and Diabetology, Poznan University of Medical
      Sciences, Poznan, Poland.
FAU - Zozulinska-Ziolkiewicz, D
AU  - Zozulinska-Ziolkiewicz D
AD  - Department of Internal Medicine and Diabetology, Poznan University of Medical
      Sciences, Poznan, Poland.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20190201
PL  - England
TA  - Diabet Med
JT  - Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association
JID - 8500858
EDAT- 2019/02/02 06:00
MHDA- 2019/02/02 06:00
CRDT- 2019/02/02 06:00
PHST- 2019/01/30 00:00 [accepted]
PHST- 2019/02/02 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2019/02/02 06:00 [medline]
PHST- 2019/02/02 06:00 [entrez]
AID - 10.1111/dme.13921 [doi]
PST - aheadofprint
SO  - Diabet Med. 2019 Feb 1. doi: 10.1111/dme.13921.

PMID- 30706535
OWN - NLM
STAT- Publisher
LR  - 20190201
IS  - 1464-5491 (Electronic)
IS  - 0742-3071 (Linking)
DP  - 2019 Feb 1
TI  - A pilot study of an integrated mental health, social and medical model for
      diabetes care in an inner-city setting: Three Dimensions for Diabetes (3DFD).
LID - 10.1111/dme.13918 [doi]
AB  - AIMS: We examined the effectiveness of a service innovation, Three Dimensions for
      Diabetes (3DFD), that consisted of a referral to an integrated mental health,
      social care and diabetes treatment model, compared with usual care in improving
      biomedical and health economic outcomes. METHODS: Using a non-randomized control 
      design, the 3DFD model was offered in two inner-city boroughs in London, UK,
      where diabetes health professionals could refer adult residents with diabetes,
      suboptimal glycaemic control [HbA1c >/= 75 mmol/mol (>/= 9.0%)] and mental health
      and/or social problems. In the usual care group, there was no referral pathway
      and anonymized data on individuals with HbA1c >/= 75 mmol/mol (>/= 9.0%) were
      collected from primary care records. Change in HbA1c from baseline to 12 months
      was the primary outcome, and change in healthcare costs and biomedical variables 
      were secondary outcomes. RESULTS: 3DFD participants had worse glycaemic control
      and higher healthcare costs than control participants at baseline. 3DFD
      participants had greater improvement in glycaemic control compared with control
      participants [-14 mmol/mol (-1.3%) vs. -6 mmol/mol (-0.6%) respectively, P <
      0.001], adjusted for confounding. Total follow-up healthcare costs remained
      higher in the 3DFD group compared with the control group (mean difference
      pound1715, 95% confidence intervals 591 to 2811), adjusted for confounding. The
      incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was pound398 per mmol/mol unit decrease in
      HbA1c , indicating the 3DFD intervention was more effective and costed more than 
      usual care. CONCLUSIONS: A biomedical, psychological and social criteria-based
      referral system for identifying and managing high-cost and high-risk individuals 
      with poor glycaemic control can lead to improved health in all three dimensions. 
      This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
CI  - This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FAU - Ismail, K
AU  - Ismail K
AD  - Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and
      Neurosciences, King's College London.
FAU - Stewart, K
AU  - Stewart K
AD  - Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and
      Neurosciences, King's College London.
FAU - Ridge, K
AU  - Ridge K
AD  - Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and
      Neurosciences, King's College London.
FAU - Britneff, E
AU  - Britneff E
AD  - Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and
      Neurosciences, King's College London.
FAU - Freudenthal, R
AU  - Freudenthal R
AD  - Diabetes Centre, King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.
FAU - Stahl, D
AU  - Stahl D
AD  - Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and
      Neurosciences, King's College London.
FAU - McCrone, P
AU  - McCrone P
AD  - Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and
      Neurosciences, King's College London.
FAU - Gayle, C
AU  - Gayle C
AD  - Diabetes Centre, King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.
FAU - Doherty, A M
AU  - Doherty AM
AD  - Diabetes Centre, King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20190201
PL  - England
TA  - Diabet Med
JT  - Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association
JID - 8500858
EDAT- 2019/02/02 06:00
MHDA- 2019/02/02 06:00
CRDT- 2019/02/02 06:00
PHST- 2019/02/02 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2019/02/02 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2019/02/02 06:00 [medline]
AID - 10.1111/dme.13918 [doi]
PST - aheadofprint
SO  - Diabet Med. 2019 Feb 1. doi: 10.1111/dme.13918.

PMID- 30706527
OWN - NLM
STAT- Publisher
LR  - 20190216
IS  - 1464-5491 (Electronic)
IS  - 0742-3071 (Linking)
DP  - 2019 Feb 1
TI  - Challenges in the management of people with diabetes and cancer.
LID - 10.1111/dme.13919 [doi]
AB  - Although micro- and macrovascular complications of diabetes are the most
      important cause of mortality and morbidity in people with diabetes, it is
      increasingly recognized that diabetes increases the risk of developing cancer.
      Diabetes and cancer commonly co-exist, and outcomes in people with both
      conditions are poorer than in those who have cancer but no diabetes. There is no 
      randomized trial evidence that treating hyperglycaemia in people with cancer
      improves outcomes, but therapeutic nihilism should be avoided, and a personalized
      approach to managing hyperglycaemia in people with cancer is needed. This review 
      aims to outline the link between diabetes therapies and cancer, and discuss the
      reasons why glucose should be actively managed people with both. In addition, we 
      discuss clinical challenges in the management of hyperglycaemia in cancer,
      specifically in relation to glucocorticoids, enteral feeding and end-of-life
      care.
CI  - (c) 2019 Diabetes UK.
FAU - Chowdhury, T A
AU  - Chowdhury TA
AUID- ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8878-2331
AD  - Department of Diabetes and Metabolism, Barts and the London School of Medicine
      and Dentistry, London, UK.
FAU - Jacob, P
AU  - Jacob P
AD  - Department of Diabetes and Metabolism, Barts and the London School of Medicine
      and Dentistry, London, UK.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20190201
PL  - England
TA  - Diabet Med
JT  - Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association
JID - 8500858
EDAT- 2019/02/02 06:00
MHDA- 2019/02/02 06:00
CRDT- 2019/02/02 06:00
PHST- 2019/01/29 00:00 [accepted]
PHST- 2019/02/02 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2019/02/02 06:00 [medline]
PHST- 2019/02/02 06:00 [entrez]
AID - 10.1111/dme.13919 [doi]
PST - aheadofprint
SO  - Diabet Med. 2019 Feb 1. doi: 10.1111/dme.13919.

PMID- 30728185
OWN - NLM
STAT- Publisher
LR  - 20190207
IS  - 1939-327X (Electronic)
IS  - 0012-1797 (Linking)
DP  - 2019 Feb 6
TI  - Monosodium Urate Contributes to Retinal Inflammation and Progression of Diabetic 
      Retinopathy.
LID - db180912 [pii]
LID - 10.2337/db18-0912 [doi]
AB  - We have investigated the contributing role of monosodium urate (MSU) to the
      pathological processes associated with the induction of diabetic retinopathy
      (DR). In human postmortem retinas and vitreous from donors with DR, we have found
      a significant increase in MSU levels which correlated with the presence of
      inflammatory markers and enhanced expression of xanthine oxidase. Same elevation 
      in MSU levels was also detected in serum and vitreous of streptozotocin-induced
      diabetic rats (STZ-rats) analyzed at 8 weeks of hyperglycemia. Furthermore,
      treatments of STZ-rats with the hypouricemic drugs allopurinol (50 mg/kg) and
      benzbromarone (10 mg/kg) given every other day resulted in a significant decrease
      of retinal and plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines and adhesion factors, a
      marked reduction of hyperglycemia-induced retinal leukostasis, and restoration of
      retinal blood barrier function. These results were associated with effects of the
      hypouricemic drugs on down-regulating diabetes-induced levels of oxidative stress
      markers as well as expression of components of the NLRP3 inflammasome such as
      NLRP3, TLR4 and IL-1beta. The outcomes of these studies support a contributing
      role of MSU in diabetes-induced retinal inflammation and suggest that
      asymptomatic hyperuricemia should be considered as a risk factor for DR induction
      and progression.
CI  - (c) 2019 by the American Diabetes Association.
FAU - Thounaojam, Menaka C
AU  - Thounaojam MC
AD  - Department of Ophthalmology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, University,
      Augusta, GA 30912.
FAU - Montemari, Annalisa
AU  - Montemari A
AD  - IRCCS Ospedale Pediatrico "Bambin Gesu'" - Rome - Italy.
FAU - Powell, Folami L
AU  - Powell FL
AD  - Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College of Georgia,
      Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912.
FAU - Malla, Prerana
AU  - Malla P
AD  - Department of Ophthalmology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, University,
      Augusta, GA 30912.
FAU - Gutsaeva, Diana R
AU  - Gutsaeva DR
AD  - Department of Ophthalmology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, University,
      Augusta, GA 30912.
FAU - Bachettoni, Alessandra
AU  - Bachettoni A
AD  - Department of Experimental Medicine and Pathology, University of Rome
      "LaSapienza", Rome, Italy.
FAU - Ripandelli, Guido
AU  - Ripandelli G
AD  - IRCCS Fondazione GB Bietti, Rome, Italy.
FAU - Repossi, Andrea
AU  - Repossi A
AD  - UOC Vitreoretina Ospedale San Carlo di Nancy, Rome, Italy.
FAU - Tawfik, Amany
AU  - Tawfik A
AD  - Department of Oral Biology, Dental College of Georgia, Augusta, University,
      Augusta, GA 30912.
FAU - Martin, Pamela M
AU  - Martin PM
AD  - Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College of Georgia,
      Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912.
FAU - Facchiano, Francesco
AU  - Facchiano F
AD  - Department of Oncology and Molecular Medicine Istituto Superiore di Sanita' -
      Rome, Italy.
FAU - Bartoli, Manuela
AU  - Bartoli M
AD  - Department of Ophthalmology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, University,
      Augusta, GA 30912 mbartoli@augusta.edu.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20190206
PL  - United States
TA  - Diabetes
JT  - Diabetes
JID - 0372763
EDAT- 2019/02/08 06:00
MHDA- 2019/02/08 06:00
CRDT- 2019/02/08 06:00
PHST- 2018/08/30 00:00 [received]
PHST- 2019/01/29 00:00 [accepted]
PHST- 2019/02/08 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2019/02/08 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2019/02/08 06:00 [medline]
AID - db18-0912 [pii]
AID - 10.2337/db18-0912 [doi]
PST - aheadofprint
SO  - Diabetes. 2019 Feb 6. pii: db18-0912. doi: 10.2337/db18-0912.

PMID- 30728224
OWN - NLM
STAT- Publisher
LR  - 20190207
IS  - 1935-5548 (Electronic)
IS  - 0149-5992 (Linking)
DP  - 2019 Feb 6
TI  - International Consensus on Risk Management of Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Patients
      with Type 1 Diabetes Treated with Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter (SGLT) Inhibitors.
LID - dc182316 [pii]
LID - 10.2337/dc18-2316 [doi]
AB  - Sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT) inhibitors are new oral antidiabetic
      medications shown to effectively reduce glycated hemoglobin (A1C) and glycemic
      variability, blood pressure and body weight without intrinsic properties to cause
      hypoglycemia in people with type 1 diabetes. However, recent studies,
      particularly in individuals with type 1 diabetes, have demonstrated increases in 
      the absolute risk of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Some cases presented with
      near-normal blood glucose levels or mild hyperglycemia, complicating the
      recognition/diagnosis of DKA and potentially delaying treatment. Several
      SGLT-inhibitors are currently under review by US Food and Drug Administration
      (FDA) and European regulatory agencies as an adjunct to insulin therapy in people
      with type 1 diabetes. Strategies must be developed and disseminated to the
      medical community to mitigate the associated DKA risk. This consensus report
      reviews current data regarding SGLT- inhibitor use and provides recommendations
      to enhance the safety of SGLT-inhibitors in people with type 1 diabetes.
CI  - (c) 2019 by the American Diabetes Association.
FAU - Danne, Thomas
AU  - Danne T
AD  - Diabetes Centre for Children and Adolescents, AUF DER BULT, Kinder- und
      Jugendkrankenhaus, Hannover, Germany.
AD  - University of Colorado Denver and Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, Aurora,
      Colorado U.S.A.
AD  - Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California , Los Angeles,
      CA, USA.
AD  - University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
      USA.
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
AD  - Alexander Associates LLC, Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University
      Medical Centre-University Children's Hospital, and Faculty of Medicine,
      University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
AD  - Clinic University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
AD  - Atlanta Diabetes Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
AD  - Clinique d'endocrinologie, L'institut du thorax, CHU Nantes, CIC 1413, INSERM,
      Nantes, France.
AD  - The diaTribe Foundation, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, State University of New York, Buffalo,
      NY., USA.
AD  - JDRF International, New York, New York, USA.
AD  - CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, 56126 Pisa, Italy.
AD  - Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne,
      Australia.
AD  - Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA.
AD  - Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield,
      Sheffield, United Kingdom.
AD  - Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego,
      California, USA.
AD  - Close Concerns, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - McNair Interests, Houston, TX, USA.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
AD  - CGParkin Communications, Inc., Boulder City, NV, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine,
      Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
AD  - Endocrine and Metabolic Consultants , Rockville, Maryland, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida,
      Gainesville, FL, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Miller School of Medicine,
      University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.
AD  - Department of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Chiba University Graduate
      School of Medicine. Chiba, Japan.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
FAU - Garg, Satish
AU  - Garg S
AD  - Diabetes Centre for Children and Adolescents, AUF DER BULT, Kinder- und
      Jugendkrankenhaus, Hannover, Germany.
AD  - University of Colorado Denver and Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, Aurora,
      Colorado U.S.A.
AD  - Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California , Los Angeles,
      CA, USA.
AD  - University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
      USA.
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
AD  - Alexander Associates LLC, Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University
      Medical Centre-University Children's Hospital, and Faculty of Medicine,
      University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
AD  - Clinic University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
AD  - Atlanta Diabetes Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
AD  - Clinique d'endocrinologie, L'institut du thorax, CHU Nantes, CIC 1413, INSERM,
      Nantes, France.
AD  - The diaTribe Foundation, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, State University of New York, Buffalo,
      NY., USA.
AD  - JDRF International, New York, New York, USA.
AD  - CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, 56126 Pisa, Italy.
AD  - Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne,
      Australia.
AD  - Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA.
AD  - Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield,
      Sheffield, United Kingdom.
AD  - Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego,
      California, USA.
AD  - Close Concerns, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - McNair Interests, Houston, TX, USA.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
AD  - CGParkin Communications, Inc., Boulder City, NV, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine,
      Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
AD  - Endocrine and Metabolic Consultants , Rockville, Maryland, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida,
      Gainesville, FL, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Miller School of Medicine,
      University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.
AD  - Department of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Chiba University Graduate
      School of Medicine. Chiba, Japan.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
FAU - Peters, Anne L
AU  - Peters AL
AD  - Diabetes Centre for Children and Adolescents, AUF DER BULT, Kinder- und
      Jugendkrankenhaus, Hannover, Germany.
AD  - University of Colorado Denver and Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, Aurora,
      Colorado U.S.A.
AD  - Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California , Los Angeles,
      CA, USA.
AD  - University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
      USA.
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
AD  - Alexander Associates LLC, Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University
      Medical Centre-University Children's Hospital, and Faculty of Medicine,
      University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
AD  - Clinic University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
AD  - Atlanta Diabetes Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
AD  - Clinique d'endocrinologie, L'institut du thorax, CHU Nantes, CIC 1413, INSERM,
      Nantes, France.
AD  - The diaTribe Foundation, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, State University of New York, Buffalo,
      NY., USA.
AD  - JDRF International, New York, New York, USA.
AD  - CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, 56126 Pisa, Italy.
AD  - Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne,
      Australia.
AD  - Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA.
AD  - Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield,
      Sheffield, United Kingdom.
AD  - Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego,
      California, USA.
AD  - Close Concerns, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - McNair Interests, Houston, TX, USA.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
AD  - CGParkin Communications, Inc., Boulder City, NV, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine,
      Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
AD  - Endocrine and Metabolic Consultants , Rockville, Maryland, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida,
      Gainesville, FL, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Miller School of Medicine,
      University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.
AD  - Department of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Chiba University Graduate
      School of Medicine. Chiba, Japan.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
FAU - Buse, John B
AU  - Buse JB
AD  - Diabetes Centre for Children and Adolescents, AUF DER BULT, Kinder- und
      Jugendkrankenhaus, Hannover, Germany.
AD  - University of Colorado Denver and Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, Aurora,
      Colorado U.S.A.
AD  - Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California , Los Angeles,
      CA, USA.
AD  - University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
      USA.
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
AD  - Alexander Associates LLC, Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University
      Medical Centre-University Children's Hospital, and Faculty of Medicine,
      University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
AD  - Clinic University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
AD  - Atlanta Diabetes Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
AD  - Clinique d'endocrinologie, L'institut du thorax, CHU Nantes, CIC 1413, INSERM,
      Nantes, France.
AD  - The diaTribe Foundation, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, State University of New York, Buffalo,
      NY., USA.
AD  - JDRF International, New York, New York, USA.
AD  - CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, 56126 Pisa, Italy.
AD  - Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne,
      Australia.
AD  - Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA.
AD  - Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield,
      Sheffield, United Kingdom.
AD  - Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego,
      California, USA.
AD  - Close Concerns, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - McNair Interests, Houston, TX, USA.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
AD  - CGParkin Communications, Inc., Boulder City, NV, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine,
      Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
AD  - Endocrine and Metabolic Consultants , Rockville, Maryland, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida,
      Gainesville, FL, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Miller School of Medicine,
      University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.
AD  - Department of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Chiba University Graduate
      School of Medicine. Chiba, Japan.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
FAU - Mathieu, Chantal
AU  - Mathieu C
AD  - Diabetes Centre for Children and Adolescents, AUF DER BULT, Kinder- und
      Jugendkrankenhaus, Hannover, Germany.
AD  - University of Colorado Denver and Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, Aurora,
      Colorado U.S.A.
AD  - Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California , Los Angeles,
      CA, USA.
AD  - University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
      USA.
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
AD  - Alexander Associates LLC, Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University
      Medical Centre-University Children's Hospital, and Faculty of Medicine,
      University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
AD  - Clinic University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
AD  - Atlanta Diabetes Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
AD  - Clinique d'endocrinologie, L'institut du thorax, CHU Nantes, CIC 1413, INSERM,
      Nantes, France.
AD  - The diaTribe Foundation, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, State University of New York, Buffalo,
      NY., USA.
AD  - JDRF International, New York, New York, USA.
AD  - CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, 56126 Pisa, Italy.
AD  - Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne,
      Australia.
AD  - Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA.
AD  - Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield,
      Sheffield, United Kingdom.
AD  - Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego,
      California, USA.
AD  - Close Concerns, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - McNair Interests, Houston, TX, USA.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
AD  - CGParkin Communications, Inc., Boulder City, NV, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine,
      Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
AD  - Endocrine and Metabolic Consultants , Rockville, Maryland, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida,
      Gainesville, FL, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Miller School of Medicine,
      University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.
AD  - Department of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Chiba University Graduate
      School of Medicine. Chiba, Japan.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
FAU - Pettus, Jeremy H
AU  - Pettus JH
AD  - Diabetes Centre for Children and Adolescents, AUF DER BULT, Kinder- und
      Jugendkrankenhaus, Hannover, Germany.
AD  - University of Colorado Denver and Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, Aurora,
      Colorado U.S.A.
AD  - Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California , Los Angeles,
      CA, USA.
AD  - University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
      USA.
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
AD  - Alexander Associates LLC, Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University
      Medical Centre-University Children's Hospital, and Faculty of Medicine,
      University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
AD  - Clinic University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
AD  - Atlanta Diabetes Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
AD  - Clinique d'endocrinologie, L'institut du thorax, CHU Nantes, CIC 1413, INSERM,
      Nantes, France.
AD  - The diaTribe Foundation, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, State University of New York, Buffalo,
      NY., USA.
AD  - JDRF International, New York, New York, USA.
AD  - CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, 56126 Pisa, Italy.
AD  - Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne,
      Australia.
AD  - Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA.
AD  - Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield,
      Sheffield, United Kingdom.
AD  - Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego,
      California, USA.
AD  - Close Concerns, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - McNair Interests, Houston, TX, USA.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
AD  - CGParkin Communications, Inc., Boulder City, NV, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine,
      Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
AD  - Endocrine and Metabolic Consultants , Rockville, Maryland, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida,
      Gainesville, FL, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Miller School of Medicine,
      University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.
AD  - Department of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Chiba University Graduate
      School of Medicine. Chiba, Japan.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
FAU - Alexander, Charles M
AU  - Alexander CM
AD  - Diabetes Centre for Children and Adolescents, AUF DER BULT, Kinder- und
      Jugendkrankenhaus, Hannover, Germany.
AD  - University of Colorado Denver and Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, Aurora,
      Colorado U.S.A.
AD  - Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California , Los Angeles,
      CA, USA.
AD  - University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
      USA.
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
AD  - Alexander Associates LLC, Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University
      Medical Centre-University Children's Hospital, and Faculty of Medicine,
      University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
AD  - Clinic University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
AD  - Atlanta Diabetes Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
AD  - Clinique d'endocrinologie, L'institut du thorax, CHU Nantes, CIC 1413, INSERM,
      Nantes, France.
AD  - The diaTribe Foundation, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, State University of New York, Buffalo,
      NY., USA.
AD  - JDRF International, New York, New York, USA.
AD  - CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, 56126 Pisa, Italy.
AD  - Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne,
      Australia.
AD  - Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA.
AD  - Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield,
      Sheffield, United Kingdom.
AD  - Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego,
      California, USA.
AD  - Close Concerns, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - McNair Interests, Houston, TX, USA.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
AD  - CGParkin Communications, Inc., Boulder City, NV, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine,
      Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
AD  - Endocrine and Metabolic Consultants , Rockville, Maryland, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida,
      Gainesville, FL, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Miller School of Medicine,
      University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.
AD  - Department of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Chiba University Graduate
      School of Medicine. Chiba, Japan.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
FAU - Battelino, Tadej
AU  - Battelino T
AD  - Diabetes Centre for Children and Adolescents, AUF DER BULT, Kinder- und
      Jugendkrankenhaus, Hannover, Germany.
AD  - University of Colorado Denver and Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, Aurora,
      Colorado U.S.A.
AD  - Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California , Los Angeles,
      CA, USA.
AD  - University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
      USA.
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
AD  - Alexander Associates LLC, Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University
      Medical Centre-University Children's Hospital, and Faculty of Medicine,
      University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
AD  - Clinic University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
AD  - Atlanta Diabetes Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
AD  - Clinique d'endocrinologie, L'institut du thorax, CHU Nantes, CIC 1413, INSERM,
      Nantes, France.
AD  - The diaTribe Foundation, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, State University of New York, Buffalo,
      NY., USA.
AD  - JDRF International, New York, New York, USA.
AD  - CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, 56126 Pisa, Italy.
AD  - Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne,
      Australia.
AD  - Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA.
AD  - Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield,
      Sheffield, United Kingdom.
AD  - Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego,
      California, USA.
AD  - Close Concerns, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - McNair Interests, Houston, TX, USA.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
AD  - CGParkin Communications, Inc., Boulder City, NV, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine,
      Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
AD  - Endocrine and Metabolic Consultants , Rockville, Maryland, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida,
      Gainesville, FL, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Miller School of Medicine,
      University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.
AD  - Department of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Chiba University Graduate
      School of Medicine. Chiba, Japan.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
FAU - Ampudia-Blasco, F Javier
AU  - Ampudia-Blasco FJ
AD  - Diabetes Centre for Children and Adolescents, AUF DER BULT, Kinder- und
      Jugendkrankenhaus, Hannover, Germany.
AD  - University of Colorado Denver and Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, Aurora,
      Colorado U.S.A.
AD  - Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California , Los Angeles,
      CA, USA.
AD  - University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
      USA.
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
AD  - Alexander Associates LLC, Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University
      Medical Centre-University Children's Hospital, and Faculty of Medicine,
      University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
AD  - Clinic University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
AD  - Atlanta Diabetes Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
AD  - Clinique d'endocrinologie, L'institut du thorax, CHU Nantes, CIC 1413, INSERM,
      Nantes, France.
AD  - The diaTribe Foundation, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, State University of New York, Buffalo,
      NY., USA.
AD  - JDRF International, New York, New York, USA.
AD  - CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, 56126 Pisa, Italy.
AD  - Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne,
      Australia.
AD  - Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA.
AD  - Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield,
      Sheffield, United Kingdom.
AD  - Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego,
      California, USA.
AD  - Close Concerns, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - McNair Interests, Houston, TX, USA.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
AD  - CGParkin Communications, Inc., Boulder City, NV, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine,
      Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
AD  - Endocrine and Metabolic Consultants , Rockville, Maryland, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida,
      Gainesville, FL, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Miller School of Medicine,
      University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.
AD  - Department of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Chiba University Graduate
      School of Medicine. Chiba, Japan.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
FAU - Bode, Bruce W
AU  - Bode BW
AD  - Diabetes Centre for Children and Adolescents, AUF DER BULT, Kinder- und
      Jugendkrankenhaus, Hannover, Germany.
AD  - University of Colorado Denver and Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, Aurora,
      Colorado U.S.A.
AD  - Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California , Los Angeles,
      CA, USA.
AD  - University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
      USA.
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
AD  - Alexander Associates LLC, Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University
      Medical Centre-University Children's Hospital, and Faculty of Medicine,
      University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
AD  - Clinic University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
AD  - Atlanta Diabetes Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
AD  - Clinique d'endocrinologie, L'institut du thorax, CHU Nantes, CIC 1413, INSERM,
      Nantes, France.
AD  - The diaTribe Foundation, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, State University of New York, Buffalo,
      NY., USA.
AD  - JDRF International, New York, New York, USA.
AD  - CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, 56126 Pisa, Italy.
AD  - Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne,
      Australia.
AD  - Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA.
AD  - Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield,
      Sheffield, United Kingdom.
AD  - Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego,
      California, USA.
AD  - Close Concerns, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - McNair Interests, Houston, TX, USA.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
AD  - CGParkin Communications, Inc., Boulder City, NV, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine,
      Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
AD  - Endocrine and Metabolic Consultants , Rockville, Maryland, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida,
      Gainesville, FL, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Miller School of Medicine,
      University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.
AD  - Department of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Chiba University Graduate
      School of Medicine. Chiba, Japan.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
FAU - Cariou, Bertrand
AU  - Cariou B
AD  - Diabetes Centre for Children and Adolescents, AUF DER BULT, Kinder- und
      Jugendkrankenhaus, Hannover, Germany.
AD  - University of Colorado Denver and Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, Aurora,
      Colorado U.S.A.
AD  - Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California , Los Angeles,
      CA, USA.
AD  - University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
      USA.
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
AD  - Alexander Associates LLC, Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University
      Medical Centre-University Children's Hospital, and Faculty of Medicine,
      University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
AD  - Clinic University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
AD  - Atlanta Diabetes Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
AD  - Clinique d'endocrinologie, L'institut du thorax, CHU Nantes, CIC 1413, INSERM,
      Nantes, France.
AD  - The diaTribe Foundation, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, State University of New York, Buffalo,
      NY., USA.
AD  - JDRF International, New York, New York, USA.
AD  - CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, 56126 Pisa, Italy.
AD  - Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne,
      Australia.
AD  - Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA.
AD  - Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield,
      Sheffield, United Kingdom.
AD  - Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego,
      California, USA.
AD  - Close Concerns, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - McNair Interests, Houston, TX, USA.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
AD  - CGParkin Communications, Inc., Boulder City, NV, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine,
      Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
AD  - Endocrine and Metabolic Consultants , Rockville, Maryland, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida,
      Gainesville, FL, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Miller School of Medicine,
      University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.
AD  - Department of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Chiba University Graduate
      School of Medicine. Chiba, Japan.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
FAU - Close, Kelly L
AU  - Close KL
AD  - Diabetes Centre for Children and Adolescents, AUF DER BULT, Kinder- und
      Jugendkrankenhaus, Hannover, Germany.
AD  - University of Colorado Denver and Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, Aurora,
      Colorado U.S.A.
AD  - Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California , Los Angeles,
      CA, USA.
AD  - University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
      USA.
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
AD  - Alexander Associates LLC, Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University
      Medical Centre-University Children's Hospital, and Faculty of Medicine,
      University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
AD  - Clinic University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
AD  - Atlanta Diabetes Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
AD  - Clinique d'endocrinologie, L'institut du thorax, CHU Nantes, CIC 1413, INSERM,
      Nantes, France.
AD  - The diaTribe Foundation, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, State University of New York, Buffalo,
      NY., USA.
AD  - JDRF International, New York, New York, USA.
AD  - CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, 56126 Pisa, Italy.
AD  - Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne,
      Australia.
AD  - Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA.
AD  - Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield,
      Sheffield, United Kingdom.
AD  - Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego,
      California, USA.
AD  - Close Concerns, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - McNair Interests, Houston, TX, USA.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
AD  - CGParkin Communications, Inc., Boulder City, NV, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine,
      Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
AD  - Endocrine and Metabolic Consultants , Rockville, Maryland, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida,
      Gainesville, FL, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Miller School of Medicine,
      University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.
AD  - Department of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Chiba University Graduate
      School of Medicine. Chiba, Japan.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
FAU - Dandona, Paresh
AU  - Dandona P
AD  - Diabetes Centre for Children and Adolescents, AUF DER BULT, Kinder- und
      Jugendkrankenhaus, Hannover, Germany.
AD  - University of Colorado Denver and Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, Aurora,
      Colorado U.S.A.
AD  - Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California , Los Angeles,
      CA, USA.
AD  - University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
      USA.
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
AD  - Alexander Associates LLC, Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University
      Medical Centre-University Children's Hospital, and Faculty of Medicine,
      University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
AD  - Clinic University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
AD  - Atlanta Diabetes Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
AD  - Clinique d'endocrinologie, L'institut du thorax, CHU Nantes, CIC 1413, INSERM,
      Nantes, France.
AD  - The diaTribe Foundation, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, State University of New York, Buffalo,
      NY., USA.
AD  - JDRF International, New York, New York, USA.
AD  - CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, 56126 Pisa, Italy.
AD  - Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne,
      Australia.
AD  - Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA.
AD  - Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield,
      Sheffield, United Kingdom.
AD  - Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego,
      California, USA.
AD  - Close Concerns, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - McNair Interests, Houston, TX, USA.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
AD  - CGParkin Communications, Inc., Boulder City, NV, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine,
      Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
AD  - Endocrine and Metabolic Consultants , Rockville, Maryland, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida,
      Gainesville, FL, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Miller School of Medicine,
      University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.
AD  - Department of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Chiba University Graduate
      School of Medicine. Chiba, Japan.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
FAU - Dutta, Sanjoy
AU  - Dutta S
AD  - Diabetes Centre for Children and Adolescents, AUF DER BULT, Kinder- und
      Jugendkrankenhaus, Hannover, Germany.
AD  - University of Colorado Denver and Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, Aurora,
      Colorado U.S.A.
AD  - Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California , Los Angeles,
      CA, USA.
AD  - University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
      USA.
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
AD  - Alexander Associates LLC, Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University
      Medical Centre-University Children's Hospital, and Faculty of Medicine,
      University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
AD  - Clinic University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
AD  - Atlanta Diabetes Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
AD  - Clinique d'endocrinologie, L'institut du thorax, CHU Nantes, CIC 1413, INSERM,
      Nantes, France.
AD  - The diaTribe Foundation, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, State University of New York, Buffalo,
      NY., USA.
AD  - JDRF International, New York, New York, USA.
AD  - CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, 56126 Pisa, Italy.
AD  - Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne,
      Australia.
AD  - Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA.
AD  - Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield,
      Sheffield, United Kingdom.
AD  - Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego,
      California, USA.
AD  - Close Concerns, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - McNair Interests, Houston, TX, USA.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
AD  - CGParkin Communications, Inc., Boulder City, NV, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine,
      Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
AD  - Endocrine and Metabolic Consultants , Rockville, Maryland, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida,
      Gainesville, FL, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Miller School of Medicine,
      University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.
AD  - Department of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Chiba University Graduate
      School of Medicine. Chiba, Japan.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
FAU - Ferrannini, Ele
AU  - Ferrannini E
AD  - Diabetes Centre for Children and Adolescents, AUF DER BULT, Kinder- und
      Jugendkrankenhaus, Hannover, Germany.
AD  - University of Colorado Denver and Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, Aurora,
      Colorado U.S.A.
AD  - Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California , Los Angeles,
      CA, USA.
AD  - University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
      USA.
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
AD  - Alexander Associates LLC, Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University
      Medical Centre-University Children's Hospital, and Faculty of Medicine,
      University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
AD  - Clinic University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
AD  - Atlanta Diabetes Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
AD  - Clinique d'endocrinologie, L'institut du thorax, CHU Nantes, CIC 1413, INSERM,
      Nantes, France.
AD  - The diaTribe Foundation, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, State University of New York, Buffalo,
      NY., USA.
AD  - JDRF International, New York, New York, USA.
AD  - CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, 56126 Pisa, Italy.
AD  - Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne,
      Australia.
AD  - Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA.
AD  - Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield,
      Sheffield, United Kingdom.
AD  - Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego,
      California, USA.
AD  - Close Concerns, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - McNair Interests, Houston, TX, USA.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
AD  - CGParkin Communications, Inc., Boulder City, NV, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine,
      Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
AD  - Endocrine and Metabolic Consultants , Rockville, Maryland, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida,
      Gainesville, FL, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Miller School of Medicine,
      University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.
AD  - Department of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Chiba University Graduate
      School of Medicine. Chiba, Japan.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
FAU - Fourlanos, Spiros
AU  - Fourlanos S
AD  - Diabetes Centre for Children and Adolescents, AUF DER BULT, Kinder- und
      Jugendkrankenhaus, Hannover, Germany.
AD  - University of Colorado Denver and Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, Aurora,
      Colorado U.S.A.
AD  - Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California , Los Angeles,
      CA, USA.
AD  - University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
      USA.
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
AD  - Alexander Associates LLC, Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University
      Medical Centre-University Children's Hospital, and Faculty of Medicine,
      University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
AD  - Clinic University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
AD  - Atlanta Diabetes Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
AD  - Clinique d'endocrinologie, L'institut du thorax, CHU Nantes, CIC 1413, INSERM,
      Nantes, France.
AD  - The diaTribe Foundation, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, State University of New York, Buffalo,
      NY., USA.
AD  - JDRF International, New York, New York, USA.
AD  - CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, 56126 Pisa, Italy.
AD  - Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne,
      Australia.
AD  - Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA.
AD  - Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield,
      Sheffield, United Kingdom.
AD  - Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego,
      California, USA.
AD  - Close Concerns, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - McNair Interests, Houston, TX, USA.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
AD  - CGParkin Communications, Inc., Boulder City, NV, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine,
      Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
AD  - Endocrine and Metabolic Consultants , Rockville, Maryland, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida,
      Gainesville, FL, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Miller School of Medicine,
      University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.
AD  - Department of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Chiba University Graduate
      School of Medicine. Chiba, Japan.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
FAU - Grunberger, George
AU  - Grunberger G
AD  - Diabetes Centre for Children and Adolescents, AUF DER BULT, Kinder- und
      Jugendkrankenhaus, Hannover, Germany.
AD  - University of Colorado Denver and Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, Aurora,
      Colorado U.S.A.
AD  - Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California , Los Angeles,
      CA, USA.
AD  - University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
      USA.
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
AD  - Alexander Associates LLC, Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University
      Medical Centre-University Children's Hospital, and Faculty of Medicine,
      University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
AD  - Clinic University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
AD  - Atlanta Diabetes Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
AD  - Clinique d'endocrinologie, L'institut du thorax, CHU Nantes, CIC 1413, INSERM,
      Nantes, France.
AD  - The diaTribe Foundation, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, State University of New York, Buffalo,
      NY., USA.
AD  - JDRF International, New York, New York, USA.
AD  - CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, 56126 Pisa, Italy.
AD  - Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne,
      Australia.
AD  - Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA.
AD  - Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield,
      Sheffield, United Kingdom.
AD  - Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego,
      California, USA.
AD  - Close Concerns, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - McNair Interests, Houston, TX, USA.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
AD  - CGParkin Communications, Inc., Boulder City, NV, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine,
      Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
AD  - Endocrine and Metabolic Consultants , Rockville, Maryland, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida,
      Gainesville, FL, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Miller School of Medicine,
      University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.
AD  - Department of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Chiba University Graduate
      School of Medicine. Chiba, Japan.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
FAU - Heller, Simon R
AU  - Heller SR
AD  - Diabetes Centre for Children and Adolescents, AUF DER BULT, Kinder- und
      Jugendkrankenhaus, Hannover, Germany.
AD  - University of Colorado Denver and Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, Aurora,
      Colorado U.S.A.
AD  - Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California , Los Angeles,
      CA, USA.
AD  - University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
      USA.
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
AD  - Alexander Associates LLC, Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University
      Medical Centre-University Children's Hospital, and Faculty of Medicine,
      University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
AD  - Clinic University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
AD  - Atlanta Diabetes Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
AD  - Clinique d'endocrinologie, L'institut du thorax, CHU Nantes, CIC 1413, INSERM,
      Nantes, France.
AD  - The diaTribe Foundation, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, State University of New York, Buffalo,
      NY., USA.
AD  - JDRF International, New York, New York, USA.
AD  - CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, 56126 Pisa, Italy.
AD  - Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne,
      Australia.
AD  - Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA.
AD  - Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield,
      Sheffield, United Kingdom.
AD  - Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego,
      California, USA.
AD  - Close Concerns, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - McNair Interests, Houston, TX, USA.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
AD  - CGParkin Communications, Inc., Boulder City, NV, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine,
      Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
AD  - Endocrine and Metabolic Consultants , Rockville, Maryland, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida,
      Gainesville, FL, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Miller School of Medicine,
      University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.
AD  - Department of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Chiba University Graduate
      School of Medicine. Chiba, Japan.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
FAU - Henry, Robert R
AU  - Henry RR
AD  - Diabetes Centre for Children and Adolescents, AUF DER BULT, Kinder- und
      Jugendkrankenhaus, Hannover, Germany.
AD  - University of Colorado Denver and Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, Aurora,
      Colorado U.S.A.
AD  - Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California , Los Angeles,
      CA, USA.
AD  - University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
      USA.
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
AD  - Alexander Associates LLC, Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University
      Medical Centre-University Children's Hospital, and Faculty of Medicine,
      University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
AD  - Clinic University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
AD  - Atlanta Diabetes Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
AD  - Clinique d'endocrinologie, L'institut du thorax, CHU Nantes, CIC 1413, INSERM,
      Nantes, France.
AD  - The diaTribe Foundation, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, State University of New York, Buffalo,
      NY., USA.
AD  - JDRF International, New York, New York, USA.
AD  - CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, 56126 Pisa, Italy.
AD  - Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne,
      Australia.
AD  - Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA.
AD  - Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield,
      Sheffield, United Kingdom.
AD  - Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego,
      California, USA.
AD  - Close Concerns, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - McNair Interests, Houston, TX, USA.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
AD  - CGParkin Communications, Inc., Boulder City, NV, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine,
      Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
AD  - Endocrine and Metabolic Consultants , Rockville, Maryland, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida,
      Gainesville, FL, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Miller School of Medicine,
      University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.
AD  - Department of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Chiba University Graduate
      School of Medicine. Chiba, Japan.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
FAU - Kurian, Martin J
AU  - Kurian MJ
AD  - Diabetes Centre for Children and Adolescents, AUF DER BULT, Kinder- und
      Jugendkrankenhaus, Hannover, Germany.
AD  - University of Colorado Denver and Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, Aurora,
      Colorado U.S.A.
AD  - Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California , Los Angeles,
      CA, USA.
AD  - University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
      USA.
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
AD  - Alexander Associates LLC, Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University
      Medical Centre-University Children's Hospital, and Faculty of Medicine,
      University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
AD  - Clinic University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
AD  - Atlanta Diabetes Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
AD  - Clinique d'endocrinologie, L'institut du thorax, CHU Nantes, CIC 1413, INSERM,
      Nantes, France.
AD  - The diaTribe Foundation, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, State University of New York, Buffalo,
      NY., USA.
AD  - JDRF International, New York, New York, USA.
AD  - CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, 56126 Pisa, Italy.
AD  - Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne,
      Australia.
AD  - Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA.
AD  - Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield,
      Sheffield, United Kingdom.
AD  - Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego,
      California, USA.
AD  - Close Concerns, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - McNair Interests, Houston, TX, USA.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
AD  - CGParkin Communications, Inc., Boulder City, NV, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine,
      Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
AD  - Endocrine and Metabolic Consultants , Rockville, Maryland, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida,
      Gainesville, FL, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Miller School of Medicine,
      University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.
AD  - Department of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Chiba University Graduate
      School of Medicine. Chiba, Japan.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
FAU - Kushner, Jake A
AU  - Kushner JA
AD  - Diabetes Centre for Children and Adolescents, AUF DER BULT, Kinder- und
      Jugendkrankenhaus, Hannover, Germany.
AD  - University of Colorado Denver and Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, Aurora,
      Colorado U.S.A.
AD  - Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California , Los Angeles,
      CA, USA.
AD  - University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
      USA.
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
AD  - Alexander Associates LLC, Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University
      Medical Centre-University Children's Hospital, and Faculty of Medicine,
      University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
AD  - Clinic University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
AD  - Atlanta Diabetes Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
AD  - Clinique d'endocrinologie, L'institut du thorax, CHU Nantes, CIC 1413, INSERM,
      Nantes, France.
AD  - The diaTribe Foundation, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, State University of New York, Buffalo,
      NY., USA.
AD  - JDRF International, New York, New York, USA.
AD  - CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, 56126 Pisa, Italy.
AD  - Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne,
      Australia.
AD  - Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA.
AD  - Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield,
      Sheffield, United Kingdom.
AD  - Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego,
      California, USA.
AD  - Close Concerns, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - McNair Interests, Houston, TX, USA.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
AD  - CGParkin Communications, Inc., Boulder City, NV, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine,
      Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
AD  - Endocrine and Metabolic Consultants , Rockville, Maryland, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida,
      Gainesville, FL, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Miller School of Medicine,
      University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.
AD  - Department of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Chiba University Graduate
      School of Medicine. Chiba, Japan.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
FAU - Oron, Tal
AU  - Oron T
AD  - Diabetes Centre for Children and Adolescents, AUF DER BULT, Kinder- und
      Jugendkrankenhaus, Hannover, Germany.
AD  - University of Colorado Denver and Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, Aurora,
      Colorado U.S.A.
AD  - Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California , Los Angeles,
      CA, USA.
AD  - University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
      USA.
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
AD  - Alexander Associates LLC, Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University
      Medical Centre-University Children's Hospital, and Faculty of Medicine,
      University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
AD  - Clinic University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
AD  - Atlanta Diabetes Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
AD  - Clinique d'endocrinologie, L'institut du thorax, CHU Nantes, CIC 1413, INSERM,
      Nantes, France.
AD  - The diaTribe Foundation, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, State University of New York, Buffalo,
      NY., USA.
AD  - JDRF International, New York, New York, USA.
AD  - CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, 56126 Pisa, Italy.
AD  - Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne,
      Australia.
AD  - Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA.
AD  - Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield,
      Sheffield, United Kingdom.
AD  - Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego,
      California, USA.
AD  - Close Concerns, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - McNair Interests, Houston, TX, USA.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
AD  - CGParkin Communications, Inc., Boulder City, NV, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine,
      Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
AD  - Endocrine and Metabolic Consultants , Rockville, Maryland, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida,
      Gainesville, FL, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Miller School of Medicine,
      University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.
AD  - Department of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Chiba University Graduate
      School of Medicine. Chiba, Japan.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
FAU - Parkin, Christopher G
AU  - Parkin CG
AD  - Diabetes Centre for Children and Adolescents, AUF DER BULT, Kinder- und
      Jugendkrankenhaus, Hannover, Germany chris@cgparkin.org.
AD  - University of Colorado Denver and Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, Aurora,
      Colorado U.S.A. chris@cgparkin.org.
AD  - Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California , Los Angeles,
      CA, USA chris@cgparkin.org.
AD  - University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. USA
      chris@cgparkin.org.
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
      chris@cgparkin.org.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA
      chris@cgparkin.org.
AD  - Alexander Associates LLC, Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania, USA chris@cgparkin.org.
AD  - Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University
      Medical Centre-University Children's Hospital, and Faculty of Medicine,
      University of Ljubljana, Slovenia chris@cgparkin.org.
AD  - Clinic University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain chris@cgparkin.org.
AD  - Atlanta Diabetes Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA chris@cgparkin.org.
AD  - Clinique d'endocrinologie, L'institut du thorax, CHU Nantes, CIC 1413, INSERM,
      Nantes, France chris@cgparkin.org.
AD  - The diaTribe Foundation, San Francisco, California, USA chris@cgparkin.org.
AD  - Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, State University of New York, Buffalo,
      NY., USA chris@cgparkin.org.
AD  - JDRF International, New York, New York, USA chris@cgparkin.org.
AD  - CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, 56126 Pisa, Italy. chris@cgparkin.org.
AD  - Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne,
      Australia chris@cgparkin.org.
AD  - Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA. chris@cgparkin.org.
AD  - Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield,
      Sheffield, United Kingdom chris@cgparkin.org.
AD  - Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego,
      California, USA chris@cgparkin.org.
AD  - Close Concerns, San Francisco, California, USA chris@cgparkin.org.
AD  - McNair Interests, Houston, TX, USA chris@cgparkin.org.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel chris@cgparkin.org.
AD  - CGParkin Communications, Inc., Boulder City, NV, USA chris@cgparkin.org.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine,
      Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria chris@cgparkin.org.
AD  - Endocrine and Metabolic Consultants , Rockville, Maryland, USA
      chris@cgparkin.org.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida,
      Gainesville, FL, USA chris@cgparkin.org.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Miller School of Medicine,
      University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA chris@cgparkin.org.
AD  - Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.
      chris@cgparkin.org.
AD  - Department of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Chiba University Graduate
      School of Medicine. Chiba, Japan chris@cgparkin.org.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel chris@cgparkin.org.
FAU - Pieber, Thomas R
AU  - Pieber TR
AD  - Diabetes Centre for Children and Adolescents, AUF DER BULT, Kinder- und
      Jugendkrankenhaus, Hannover, Germany.
AD  - University of Colorado Denver and Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, Aurora,
      Colorado U.S.A.
AD  - Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California , Los Angeles,
      CA, USA.
AD  - University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
      USA.
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
AD  - Alexander Associates LLC, Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University
      Medical Centre-University Children's Hospital, and Faculty of Medicine,
      University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
AD  - Clinic University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
AD  - Atlanta Diabetes Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
AD  - Clinique d'endocrinologie, L'institut du thorax, CHU Nantes, CIC 1413, INSERM,
      Nantes, France.
AD  - The diaTribe Foundation, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, State University of New York, Buffalo,
      NY., USA.
AD  - JDRF International, New York, New York, USA.
AD  - CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, 56126 Pisa, Italy.
AD  - Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne,
      Australia.
AD  - Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA.
AD  - Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield,
      Sheffield, United Kingdom.
AD  - Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego,
      California, USA.
AD  - Close Concerns, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - McNair Interests, Houston, TX, USA.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
AD  - CGParkin Communications, Inc., Boulder City, NV, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine,
      Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
AD  - Endocrine and Metabolic Consultants , Rockville, Maryland, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida,
      Gainesville, FL, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Miller School of Medicine,
      University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.
AD  - Department of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Chiba University Graduate
      School of Medicine. Chiba, Japan.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
FAU - Rodbard, Helena W
AU  - Rodbard HW
AD  - Diabetes Centre for Children and Adolescents, AUF DER BULT, Kinder- und
      Jugendkrankenhaus, Hannover, Germany.
AD  - University of Colorado Denver and Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, Aurora,
      Colorado U.S.A.
AD  - Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California , Los Angeles,
      CA, USA.
AD  - University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
      USA.
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
AD  - Alexander Associates LLC, Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University
      Medical Centre-University Children's Hospital, and Faculty of Medicine,
      University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
AD  - Clinic University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
AD  - Atlanta Diabetes Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
AD  - Clinique d'endocrinologie, L'institut du thorax, CHU Nantes, CIC 1413, INSERM,
      Nantes, France.
AD  - The diaTribe Foundation, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, State University of New York, Buffalo,
      NY., USA.
AD  - JDRF International, New York, New York, USA.
AD  - CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, 56126 Pisa, Italy.
AD  - Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne,
      Australia.
AD  - Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA.
AD  - Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield,
      Sheffield, United Kingdom.
AD  - Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego,
      California, USA.
AD  - Close Concerns, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - McNair Interests, Houston, TX, USA.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
AD  - CGParkin Communications, Inc., Boulder City, NV, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine,
      Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
AD  - Endocrine and Metabolic Consultants , Rockville, Maryland, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida,
      Gainesville, FL, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Miller School of Medicine,
      University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.
AD  - Department of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Chiba University Graduate
      School of Medicine. Chiba, Japan.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
FAU - Schatz, Desmond
AU  - Schatz D
AD  - Diabetes Centre for Children and Adolescents, AUF DER BULT, Kinder- und
      Jugendkrankenhaus, Hannover, Germany.
AD  - University of Colorado Denver and Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, Aurora,
      Colorado U.S.A.
AD  - Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California , Los Angeles,
      CA, USA.
AD  - University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
      USA.
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
AD  - Alexander Associates LLC, Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University
      Medical Centre-University Children's Hospital, and Faculty of Medicine,
      University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
AD  - Clinic University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
AD  - Atlanta Diabetes Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
AD  - Clinique d'endocrinologie, L'institut du thorax, CHU Nantes, CIC 1413, INSERM,
      Nantes, France.
AD  - The diaTribe Foundation, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, State University of New York, Buffalo,
      NY., USA.
AD  - JDRF International, New York, New York, USA.
AD  - CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, 56126 Pisa, Italy.
AD  - Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne,
      Australia.
AD  - Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA.
AD  - Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield,
      Sheffield, United Kingdom.
AD  - Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego,
      California, USA.
AD  - Close Concerns, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - McNair Interests, Houston, TX, USA.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
AD  - CGParkin Communications, Inc., Boulder City, NV, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine,
      Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
AD  - Endocrine and Metabolic Consultants , Rockville, Maryland, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida,
      Gainesville, FL, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Miller School of Medicine,
      University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.
AD  - Department of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Chiba University Graduate
      School of Medicine. Chiba, Japan.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
FAU - Skyler, Jay S
AU  - Skyler JS
AD  - Diabetes Centre for Children and Adolescents, AUF DER BULT, Kinder- und
      Jugendkrankenhaus, Hannover, Germany.
AD  - University of Colorado Denver and Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, Aurora,
      Colorado U.S.A.
AD  - Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California , Los Angeles,
      CA, USA.
AD  - University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
      USA.
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
AD  - Alexander Associates LLC, Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University
      Medical Centre-University Children's Hospital, and Faculty of Medicine,
      University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
AD  - Clinic University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
AD  - Atlanta Diabetes Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
AD  - Clinique d'endocrinologie, L'institut du thorax, CHU Nantes, CIC 1413, INSERM,
      Nantes, France.
AD  - The diaTribe Foundation, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, State University of New York, Buffalo,
      NY., USA.
AD  - JDRF International, New York, New York, USA.
AD  - CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, 56126 Pisa, Italy.
AD  - Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne,
      Australia.
AD  - Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA.
AD  - Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield,
      Sheffield, United Kingdom.
AD  - Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego,
      California, USA.
AD  - Close Concerns, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - McNair Interests, Houston, TX, USA.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
AD  - CGParkin Communications, Inc., Boulder City, NV, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine,
      Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
AD  - Endocrine and Metabolic Consultants , Rockville, Maryland, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida,
      Gainesville, FL, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Miller School of Medicine,
      University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.
AD  - Department of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Chiba University Graduate
      School of Medicine. Chiba, Japan.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
FAU - Tamborlane, William V
AU  - Tamborlane WV
AD  - Diabetes Centre for Children and Adolescents, AUF DER BULT, Kinder- und
      Jugendkrankenhaus, Hannover, Germany.
AD  - University of Colorado Denver and Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, Aurora,
      Colorado U.S.A.
AD  - Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California , Los Angeles,
      CA, USA.
AD  - University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
      USA.
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
AD  - Alexander Associates LLC, Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University
      Medical Centre-University Children's Hospital, and Faculty of Medicine,
      University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
AD  - Clinic University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
AD  - Atlanta Diabetes Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
AD  - Clinique d'endocrinologie, L'institut du thorax, CHU Nantes, CIC 1413, INSERM,
      Nantes, France.
AD  - The diaTribe Foundation, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, State University of New York, Buffalo,
      NY., USA.
AD  - JDRF International, New York, New York, USA.
AD  - CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, 56126 Pisa, Italy.
AD  - Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne,
      Australia.
AD  - Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA.
AD  - Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield,
      Sheffield, United Kingdom.
AD  - Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego,
      California, USA.
AD  - Close Concerns, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - McNair Interests, Houston, TX, USA.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
AD  - CGParkin Communications, Inc., Boulder City, NV, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine,
      Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
AD  - Endocrine and Metabolic Consultants , Rockville, Maryland, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida,
      Gainesville, FL, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Miller School of Medicine,
      University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.
AD  - Department of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Chiba University Graduate
      School of Medicine. Chiba, Japan.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
FAU - Yokote, Koutaro
AU  - Yokote K
AD  - Diabetes Centre for Children and Adolescents, AUF DER BULT, Kinder- und
      Jugendkrankenhaus, Hannover, Germany.
AD  - University of Colorado Denver and Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, Aurora,
      Colorado U.S.A.
AD  - Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California , Los Angeles,
      CA, USA.
AD  - University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
      USA.
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
AD  - Alexander Associates LLC, Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University
      Medical Centre-University Children's Hospital, and Faculty of Medicine,
      University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
AD  - Clinic University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
AD  - Atlanta Diabetes Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
AD  - Clinique d'endocrinologie, L'institut du thorax, CHU Nantes, CIC 1413, INSERM,
      Nantes, France.
AD  - The diaTribe Foundation, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, State University of New York, Buffalo,
      NY., USA.
AD  - JDRF International, New York, New York, USA.
AD  - CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, 56126 Pisa, Italy.
AD  - Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne,
      Australia.
AD  - Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA.
AD  - Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield,
      Sheffield, United Kingdom.
AD  - Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego,
      California, USA.
AD  - Close Concerns, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - McNair Interests, Houston, TX, USA.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
AD  - CGParkin Communications, Inc., Boulder City, NV, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine,
      Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
AD  - Endocrine and Metabolic Consultants , Rockville, Maryland, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida,
      Gainesville, FL, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Miller School of Medicine,
      University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.
AD  - Department of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Chiba University Graduate
      School of Medicine. Chiba, Japan.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
FAU - Phillip, Moshe
AU  - Phillip M
AD  - Diabetes Centre for Children and Adolescents, AUF DER BULT, Kinder- und
      Jugendkrankenhaus, Hannover, Germany.
AD  - University of Colorado Denver and Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, Aurora,
      Colorado U.S.A.
AD  - Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California , Los Angeles,
      CA, USA.
AD  - University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
      USA.
AD  - Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
AD  - Alexander Associates LLC, Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University
      Medical Centre-University Children's Hospital, and Faculty of Medicine,
      University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
AD  - Clinic University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
AD  - Atlanta Diabetes Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
AD  - Clinique d'endocrinologie, L'institut du thorax, CHU Nantes, CIC 1413, INSERM,
      Nantes, France.
AD  - The diaTribe Foundation, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, State University of New York, Buffalo,
      NY., USA.
AD  - JDRF International, New York, New York, USA.
AD  - CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, 56126 Pisa, Italy.
AD  - Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne,
      Australia.
AD  - Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA.
AD  - Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield,
      Sheffield, United Kingdom.
AD  - Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego,
      California, USA.
AD  - Close Concerns, San Francisco, California, USA.
AD  - McNair Interests, Houston, TX, USA.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
AD  - CGParkin Communications, Inc., Boulder City, NV, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine,
      Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
AD  - Endocrine and Metabolic Consultants , Rockville, Maryland, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida,
      Gainesville, FL, USA.
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Miller School of Medicine,
      University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
AD  - Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.
AD  - Department of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Chiba University Graduate
      School of Medicine. Chiba, Japan.
AD  - The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes,
      National Center for Childhood Diabetes, Schneider Children's Medical Center of
      Israel, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel
      Aviv, Israel.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20190206
PL  - United States
TA  - Diabetes Care
JT  - Diabetes care
JID - 7805975
EDAT- 2019/02/08 06:00
MHDA- 2019/02/08 06:00
CRDT- 2019/02/08 06:00
PHST- 2018/11/06 00:00 [received]
PHST- 2019/01/11 00:00 [accepted]
PHST- 2019/02/08 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2019/02/08 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2019/02/08 06:00 [medline]
AID - dc18-2316 [pii]
AID - 10.2337/dc18-2316 [doi]
PST - aheadofprint
SO  - Diabetes Care. 2019 Feb 6. pii: dc18-2316. doi: 10.2337/dc18-2316.

PMID- 30728223
OWN - NLM
STAT- Publisher
LR  - 20190207
IS  - 1935-5548 (Electronic)
IS  - 0149-5992 (Linking)
DP  - 2019 Feb 6
TI  - Association of Diabetes and Glycated Hemoglobin With the Risk of Intracerebral
      Hemorrhage: A Population-Based Cohort Study.
LID - dc182472 [pii]
LID - 10.2337/dc18-2472 [doi]
AB  - OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of diabetes and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)
      with the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in a large population-based
      cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The computerized database of the largest
      health care provider in Israel was used to identify adult members aged 40 years
      or older and alive at 1 January 2010 (297,486 with diabetes and 1,167,585 without
      diabetes). The cohort was followed until 31 December 2017 for incidence of ICH.
      Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusted for baseline
      disease risk score, were applied to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of ICH.
      RESULTS: Overall 4,170 ICH cases occurred during 10,730,915 person-years of
      follow-up. Diabetes was independently associated with increased ICH risk, with
      hazard ratio (HR) 1.36 (95% CI 1.27-1.45), and increased with longer diabetes
      duration: 1.23 (1.12-1.35) and 1.44 (1.34-1.56) for diabetes duration </=5 years 
      and >5 years, respectively. The increased ICH risk associated with diabetes was
      more pronounced in patients </=60 years old (P interaction <0.001). Among
      patients with diabetes, HbA1c had a nonlinear J-shaped relationship with ICH (P
      for nonlinearity = 0.0186). Compared to the fourth HbA1c decile 6.5%-6.7% (48-50 
      mmol/mol), the HR for ICH was 1.27 (1.01-1.59) and 2.19 (1.75-2.73) in the lowest
      decile </= 6.0% (</=42mmol/mol) and highest HbA1c decile >9.3% (>78mmol/mol),
      respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes is associated with increased risk of ICH that
      is directly associated with diabetes duration. ICH and HbA1c appear to have a
      J-shaped relationship, suggesting that both poor control as well as extreme
      intensive diabetes control might be associated with increased risk.
CI  - (c) 2019 by the American Diabetes Association.
FAU - Saliba, Walid
AU  - Saliba W
AD  - Department of Community Medicine and Epidemiology, Lady Davis Carmel Medical
      Center, Clalit Health Services, Haifa, Israel.
AD  - Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion - Israel Institute of
      Technology, Haifa, Israel.
FAU - Barnett-Griness, Ofra
AU  - Barnett-Griness O
AD  - Department of Community Medicine and Epidemiology, Lady Davis Carmel Medical
      Center, Clalit Health Services, Haifa, Israel.
AD  - Statistical Unit, Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, Clalit Health Services,
      Haifa, Israel.
FAU - Gronich, Naomi
AU  - Gronich N
AD  - Department of Community Medicine and Epidemiology, Lady Davis Carmel Medical
      Center, Clalit Health Services, Haifa, Israel.
AD  - Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacogenetics Unit, Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center,
      Clalit Health Services, Haifa, Israel.
FAU - Molad, Jeremy
AU  - Molad J
AD  - Department of Neurology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel.
FAU - Naftali, Jonathan
AU  - Naftali J
AD  - Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion - Israel Institute of
      Technology, Haifa, Israel.
FAU - Rennert, Gad
AU  - Rennert G
AD  - Department of Community Medicine and Epidemiology, Lady Davis Carmel Medical
      Center, Clalit Health Services, Haifa, Israel.
AD  - Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion - Israel Institute of
      Technology, Haifa, Israel.
FAU - Auriel, Eitan
AU  - Auriel E
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6712-5156
AD  - Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion - Israel Institute of
      Technology, Haifa, Israel eitanman1@gmail.com.
AD  - Department of Neurology, Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, Clalit Health
      Services, Haifa, Israel.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20190206
PL  - United States
TA  - Diabetes Care
JT  - Diabetes care
JID - 7805975
EDAT- 2019/02/08 06:00
MHDA- 2019/02/08 06:00
CRDT- 2019/02/08 06:00
PHST- 2018/12/02 00:00 [received]
PHST- 2019/01/19 00:00 [accepted]
PHST- 2019/02/08 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2019/02/08 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2019/02/08 06:00 [medline]
AID - dc18-2472 [pii]
AID - 10.2337/dc18-2472 [doi]
PST - aheadofprint
SO  - Diabetes Care. 2019 Feb 6. pii: dc18-2472. doi: 10.2337/dc18-2472.

PMID- 30728222
OWN - NLM
STAT- Publisher
LR  - 20190207
IS  - 1935-5548 (Electronic)
IS  - 0149-5992 (Linking)
DP  - 2019 Feb 6
TI  - Glycemic Variability Is a Powerful Independent Predictive Factor of Midterm Major
      Adverse Cardiac Events in Patients With Diabetes With Acute Coronary Syndrome.
LID - dc182047 [pii]
LID - 10.2337/dc18-2047 [doi]
AB  - OBJECTIVE: Acute glucose fluctuations are associated with hypoglycemia and are
      emerging risk factors for cardiovascular outcomes. However, the relationship
      between glycemic variability (GV) and the occurrence of midterm major
      cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with diabetes remains unclear. This
      study investigated the prognostic value of GV in patients with diabetes and acute
      coronary syndrome (ACS). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study included
      consecutive patients with diabetes and ACS between January 2015 and November
      2016. GV was assessed using SD during initial hospitalization. MACE, including
      new-onset myocardial infarction, acute heart failure, and cardiac death, were
      recorded. The predictive effects of GV on patient outcomes were analyzed with
      respect to baseline characteristics and cardiac status. RESULTS: A total of 327
      patients with diabetes and ACS were enrolled. MACE occurred in 89 patients
      (27.2%) during a mean follow-up of 16.9 months. During follow-up, 24 patients
      (7.3%) died of cardiac causes, 35 (10.7%) had new-onset myocardial infarction,
      and 30 (9.2%) were hospitalized for acute heart failure. Multivariable logistic
      regression analysis showed that GV >2.70 mmol/L, a Synergy between PCI with Taxus
      and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) score of >34, and reduced left ventricular ejection 
      fraction of <40% were independent predictors of MACE, with odds ratios (ORs) of
      2.21 (95% CI 1.64-2.98; P < 0.001), 1.88 (1.26-2.82; P = 0.002), and 1.71
      (1.14-2.54; P = 0.009), respectively, whereas a Global Registry of Acute Coronary
      Events risk score >140 was not (OR 1.07 [0.77-1.49]; P = 0.69). CONCLUSIONS: A GV
      cutoff value of >2.70 mmol/L was the strongest independent predictive factor for 
      midterm MACE in patients with diabetes and ACS.
CI  - (c) 2019 by the American Diabetes Association.
FAU - Gerbaud, Edouard
AU  - Gerbaud E
AD  - Cardiology Intensive Care Unit and Interventional Cardiology, Hopital
      Cardiologique du Haut Leveque, Pessac, France.
AD  - Bordeaux Cardio-Thoracic Research Centre, U1045, Bordeaux University, Bordeaux,
      France.
FAU - Darier, Romain
AU  - Darier R
AD  - Cardiology Intensive Care Unit and Interventional Cardiology, Hopital
      Cardiologique du Haut Leveque, Pessac, France.
FAU - Montaudon, Michel
AU  - Montaudon M
AD  - Bordeaux Cardio-Thoracic Research Centre, U1045, Bordeaux University, Bordeaux,
      France.
FAU - Beauvieux, Marie-Christine
AU  - Beauvieux MC
AD  - Biochemistry Laboratory, Hopital Cardiologique du Haut-Leveque, Bordeaux
      University, Pessac, France.
FAU - Coffin-Boutreux, Christine
AU  - Coffin-Boutreux C
AD  - Endocrinology-Nutrition Department, Centre Hospitalier de Perigueux, Perigueux,
      France.
FAU - Coste, Pierre
AU  - Coste P
AD  - Cardiology Intensive Care Unit and Interventional Cardiology, Hopital
      Cardiologique du Haut Leveque, Pessac, France.
AD  - Bordeaux Cardio-Thoracic Research Centre, U1045, Bordeaux University, Bordeaux,
      France.
FAU - Douard, Herve
AU  - Douard H
AD  - Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hopital Cardiologique du Haut Leveque,
      Bordeaux University, Pessac, France.
FAU - Ouattara, Alexandre
AU  - Ouattara A
AD  - Department of Anaesthesia and Critical Care, Magellan Medico-Surgical Centre,
      Bordeaux University, Pessac, France.
AD  - Biology of Cardiovascular Diseases Centre, U1034, Bordeaux University, Pessac,
      France.
FAU - Catargi, Bogdan
AU  - Catargi B
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0930-3588
AD  - Endocrinology-Metabolic Diseases, Hopital Saint-Andre, Bordeaux University,
      Bordeaux, France bogdan.catargi@chu-bordeaux.fr.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20190206
PL  - United States
TA  - Diabetes Care
JT  - Diabetes care
JID - 7805975
EDAT- 2019/02/08 06:00
MHDA- 2019/02/08 06:00
CRDT- 2019/02/08 06:00
PHST- 2018/09/28 00:00 [received]
PHST- 2019/01/16 00:00 [accepted]
PHST- 2019/02/08 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2019/02/08 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2019/02/08 06:00 [medline]
AID - dc18-2047 [pii]
AID - 10.2337/dc18-2047 [doi]
PST - aheadofprint
SO  - Diabetes Care. 2019 Feb 6. pii: dc18-2047. doi: 10.2337/dc18-2047.

PMID- 30728220
OWN - NLM
STAT- Publisher
LR  - 20190207
IS  - 1935-5548 (Electronic)
IS  - 0149-5992 (Linking)
DP  - 2019 Feb 6
TI  - Changes in Screening Practices for Prediabetes and Diabetes Since the
      Recommendation for Hemoglobin A1c Testing.
LID - dc171726 [pii]
LID - 10.2337/dc17-1726 [doi]
AB  - OBJECTIVE: Screening involves the presumptive identification of asymptomatic
      individuals at increased risk for unrecognized disease. We examined changes in
      screening practices for prediabetes and diabetes since January 2010, when HbA1c
      was first recommended as an option for screening and diagnosis. RESEARCH DESIGN
      AND METHODS: We studied members without diabetes of an HMO >/=45 years of age
      continuously enrolled for >/=3 years and assigned to primary care clinicians
      affiliated with a large academic health system. We defined screening as the first
      oral glucose tolerance test, HbA1c, or glucose test performed between 2010 and
      2014. RESULTS: Of 12,772 eligible patients, 9,941 (78%) were screened at least
      once over 3 years. HbA1c was the initial screening test 14% of the time and
      glucose 86% of the time. Of those screened with HbA1c, 63% had abnormal results
      defined as HbA1c >/=5.7% (>/=39 mmol/mol). Of those tested with glucose, 30% had 
      abnormal results defined as glucose >/=100 mg/dL, and 5% had abnormal results
      defined as glucose >/=126 mg/dL. Patients with abnormal HbA1c levels and those
      with glucose levels >/=126 mg/dL were equally likely to be scheduled for
      follow-up appointments (41% vs. 39%), but those with abnormal HbA1c levels were
      more likely to be diagnosed with prediabetes or diabetes (36% vs. 26%).
      CONCLUSIONS: As we observed in 2004, rates of screening are high. HbA1c is still 
      used less frequently than glucose for screening but is more likely to result in a
      clinical diagnosis. Evidence to support guidelines to define the role of random
      glucose screening including definition of appropriate cut points and follow-up is
      needed.
CI  - (c) 2019 by the American Diabetes Association.
FAU - Evron, Joshua M
AU  - Evron JM
AD  - Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
FAU - Herman, William H
AU  - Herman WH
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0502-674X
AD  - Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
AD  - Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
FAU - McEwen, Laura N
AU  - McEwen LN
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1737-1161
AD  - Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI
      lmattei@umich.edu.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20190206
PL  - United States
TA  - Diabetes Care
JT  - Diabetes care
JID - 7805975
EDAT- 2019/02/08 06:00
MHDA- 2019/02/08 06:00
CRDT- 2019/02/08 06:00
PHST- 2017/08/17 00:00 [received]
PHST- 2019/01/13 00:00 [accepted]
PHST- 2019/02/08 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2019/02/08 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2019/02/08 06:00 [medline]
AID - dc17-1726 [pii]
AID - 10.2337/dc17-1726 [doi]
PST - aheadofprint
SO  - Diabetes Care. 2019 Feb 6. pii: dc17-1726. doi: 10.2337/dc17-1726.

PMID- 30728219
OWN - NLM
STAT- Publisher
LR  - 20190207
IS  - 1935-5548 (Electronic)
IS  - 0149-5992 (Linking)
DP  - 2019 Feb 6
TI  - Dairy Product Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in EPIC-InterAct: A Mendelian
      Randomization Study.
LID - dc182034 [pii]
LID - 10.2337/dc18-2034 [doi]
AB  - OBJECTIVE: To estimate the causal association between intake of dairy products
      and incident type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The analysis included 
      21,820 European individuals (9,686 diabetes cases) of the EPIC-InterAct
      case-cohort study. Participants were genotyped, and rs4988235 (LCT-12910C>T), a
      SNP for lactase persistence (LP) which enables digestion of dairy sugar, i.e.,
      lactose, was imputed. Baseline dietary intakes were assessed with diet
      questionnaires. We investigated the associations between imputed SNP dosage for
      rs4988235 and intake of dairy products and other foods through linear regression.
      Mendelian randomization (MR) estimates for the milk-diabetes relationship were
      obtained through a two-stage least squares regression. RESULTS: Each additional
      LP allele was associated with a higher intake of milk (beta 17.1 g/day, 95% CI
      10.6-23.6) and milk beverages (beta 2.8 g/day, 95% CI 1.0-4.5) but not with
      intake of other dairy products. Other dietary intakes associated with rs4988235
      included fruits (beta -7.0 g/day, 95% CI -12.4 to -1.7 per additional LP allele),
      nonalcoholic beverages (beta -18.0 g/day, 95% CI -34.4 to -1.6), and wine (beta
      -4.8 g/day, 95% CI -9.1 to -0.6). In instrumental variable analysis,
      LP-associated milk intake was not associated with diabetes (hazard ratio 0.99per 
      15 g/day, 95% CI 0.93-1.05). CONCLUSIONS: rs4988235 was associated with milk
      intake but not with intake of other dairy products. This MR study does not
      suggest that milk intake is associated with diabetes, which is consistent with
      previous observational and genetic associations. LP may be associated with intake
      of other foods as well, but owing to the modest associations we consider it
      unlikely that this has caused the observed null result.
CI  - (c) 2019 by the American Diabetes Association.
FAU - Vissers, Linda E T
AU  - Vissers LET
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9044-0744
AD  - Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center
      Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
FAU - Sluijs, Ivonne
AU  - Sluijs I
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7758-4911
AD  - Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center
      Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands i.sluijs-2@umcutrecht.nl.
FAU - van der Schouw, Yvonne T
AU  - van der Schouw YT
AD  - Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center
      Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
FAU - Forouhi, Nita G
AU  - Forouhi NG
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5041-248X
AD  - MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, U.K.
FAU - Imamura, Fumiaki
AU  - Imamura F
AD  - MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, U.K.
FAU - Burgess, Stephen
AU  - Burgess S
AD  - Department of Public Health and Primary Care, School of Clinical Medicine,
      University of Cambridge, Cambridge, U.K.
FAU - Barricarte, Aurelio
AU  - Barricarte A
AD  - Navarre Public Health Institute (ISPN), Pamplona, Spain.
FAU - Boeing, Heiner
AU  - Boeing H
AD  - German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke, Nuthetal, Germany.
FAU - Bonet, Catalina
AU  - Bonet C
AD  - Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Institut
      Catala d'Oncologia, Barcelona, Spain.
FAU - Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores
AU  - Chirlaque MD
AD  - Department of Epidemiology, Regional Health Council, IMIB-Arrixaca, University of
      Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
AD  - CIBER in Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.
FAU - Fagherazzi, Guy
AU  - Fagherazzi G
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5033-5966
AD  - CESP UMR1018, INSERM, Institut Gustave Roussy, Paris South
      University-Paris-Saclay University, Villejuif, France.
FAU - Franks, Paul W
AU  - Franks PW
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0520-7604
AD  - Lund University, Malmo, Sweden.
FAU - Freisling, Heinz
AU  - Freisling H
AD  - Section of Nutrition and Metabolism, International Agency for Research on Cancer,
      Lyon, France.
FAU - Gunter, Marc J
AU  - Gunter MJ
AD  - Section of Nutrition and Metabolism, International Agency for Research on Cancer,
      Lyon, France.
FAU - Quiros, J Ramon
AU  - Quiros JR
AD  - Public Health Directorate, Asturias, Spain.
FAU - Ibsen, Daniel B
AU  - Ibsen DB
AD  - Section for Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus,
      Denmark.
FAU - Kaaks, Rudolf
AU  - Kaaks R
AD  - German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.
FAU - Key, Timothy
AU  - Key T
AD  - University of Oxford, Oxford, U.K.
FAU - Khaw, Kay T
AU  - Khaw KT
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8802-2903
AD  - Department of Public Health and Primary Care, School of Clinical Medicine,
      University of Cambridge, Cambridge, U.K.
FAU - Kuhn, Tilman
AU  - Kuhn T
AD  - German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.
FAU - Mokoroa, Olatz
AU  - Mokoroa O
AD  - CIBER in Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.
AD  - Public Health Division of Gipuzkoa, Biodonostia Research Institute, San
      Sebastian, Spain.
FAU - Nilsson, Peter M
AU  - Nilsson PM
AD  - Lund University, Malmo, Sweden.
FAU - Overvad, Kim
AU  - Overvad K
AD  - Department of Cardiology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark.
FAU - Pala, Valeria
AU  - Pala V
AD  - Epidemiology and Prevention Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori,
      Milan, Italy.
FAU - Palli, Domenico
AU  - Palli D
AD  - Cancer Risk Factors and LifeStyle Epidemiology Unit, Institute for Cancer
      Research, Prevention and Clinical Network (ISPRO), Florence, Italy.
FAU - Panico, Salvatore
AU  - Panico S
AD  - Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Chirurgia, Federico II University, Naples,
      Italy.
FAU - Sacerdote, Carlotta
AU  - Sacerdote C
AD  - Unit of Cancer Epidemiology, University Hospital "Citta della Salute e della
      Scienza," University of Turin, and Center for Cancer Prevention (CPO), Torino,
      Italy.
FAU - Spijkerman, Annemieke M W
AU  - Spijkerman AMW
AD  - National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the
      Netherlands.
FAU - Tjonneland, Anne
AU  - Tjonneland A
AD  - Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark.
FAU - Tumino, Rosario
AU  - Tumino R
AD  - ASP Ragusa, Ragusa, Italy.
FAU - Rodriguez-Barranco, Miguel
AU  - Rodriguez-Barranco M
AD  - CIBER in Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.
AD  - Escuela Andaluza de Salud Publica, Instituto de Investigacion Biosanitaria
      ibs.GRANADA, Hospitales Universitarios de Granada, Universidad de Granada,
      Granada, Spain.
FAU - Rolandsson, Olov
AU  - Rolandsson O
AD  - Umea University, Umea, Sweden.
FAU - Riboli, Elio
AU  - Riboli E
AD  - School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, U.K.
FAU - Sharp, Stephen J
AU  - Sharp SJ
AD  - MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, U.K.
FAU - Langenberg, Claudia
AU  - Langenberg C
AD  - MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, U.K.
FAU - Wareham, Nicholas J
AU  - Wareham NJ
AD  - MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, U.K.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20190206
PL  - United States
TA  - Diabetes Care
JT  - Diabetes care
JID - 7805975
EDAT- 2019/02/08 06:00
MHDA- 2019/02/08 06:00
CRDT- 2019/02/08 06:00
PHST- 2018/09/26 00:00 [received]
PHST- 2019/01/09 00:00 [accepted]
PHST- 2019/02/08 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2019/02/08 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2019/02/08 06:00 [medline]
AID - dc18-2034 [pii]
AID - 10.2337/dc18-2034 [doi]
PST - aheadofprint
SO  - Diabetes Care. 2019 Feb 6. pii: dc18-2034. doi: 10.2337/dc18-2034.

PMID- 30728218
OWN - NLM
STAT- Publisher
LR  - 20190207
IS  - 1935-5548 (Electronic)
IS  - 0149-5992 (Linking)
DP  - 2019 Feb 6
TI  - Association of Insulin Dose, Cardiometabolic Risk Factors, and Cardiovascular
      Disease in Type 1 Diabetes During 30 Years of Follow-up in the DCCT/EDIC Study.
LID - dc181574 [pii]
LID - 10.2337/dc18-1574 [doi]
AB  - OBJECTIVE: The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes 
      Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) study demonstrated the beneficial
      effects of intensive therapy on atherosclerosis and clinical cardiovascular
      disease (CVD) outcomes. The current analyses evaluated the relationship between
      longitudinal changes in insulin dose and CVD risk factors and outcomes. RESEARCH 
      DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 1,441 participants were randomly assigned to
      intensive or conventional diabetes therapy during the DCCT. After an average of
      6.5 years of follow-up, 96% of the surviving cohort enrolled in the EDIC
      observational study, which included annual visits with detailed medical history, 
      physical examination, and laboratory testing. CVD events were adjudicated by a
      review committee. Generalized linear mixed models and Cox proportional hazards
      regression models were used to assess the association between insulin dose and
      cardiometabolic risk factors and CVD risk, respectively, over a total of 30
      years. RESULTS: Higher insulin doses were significantly associated with a less
      favorable cardiometabolic risk profile (higher BMI, pulse rate, triglycerides,
      and lower HDL cholesterol) with the exception of lower diastolic blood pressure
      and lower LDL cholesterol. In a minimally adjusted model, a 0.1 unit/kg body
      wt/day increase in insulin dose was associated with a 6% increased risk of any
      CVD (95% CI 3, 9). However, the association with insulin dose was no longer
      significant after adjustment for other CVD risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: During
      DCCT/EDIC, higher insulin doses were associated with adverse trends in several
      cardiometabolic risk factors, even after multivariable adjustment, but not with
      incident CVD outcomes.
CI  - (c) 2019 by the American Diabetes Association.
FAU - Braffett, Barbara H
AU  - Braffett BH
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2184-9754
AD  - Biostatistics Center, The George Washington University, Rockville, MD
      braffett@bsc.gwu.edu.
FAU - Dagogo-Jack, Samuel
AU  - Dagogo-Jack S
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5318-9677
AD  - Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of Tennessee
      Health Science Center, Memphis, TN.
FAU - Bebu, Ionut
AU  - Bebu I
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4944-7968
AD  - Biostatistics Center, The George Washington University, Rockville, MD.
FAU - Sivitz, William I
AU  - Sivitz WI
AD  - Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine,
      University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA.
FAU - Larkin, Mary
AU  - Larkin M
AD  - Massachusetts General Hospital Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston,
      MA.
FAU - Kolterman, Orville
AU  - Kolterman O
AD  - University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA.
FAU - Lachin, John M
AU  - Lachin JM
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9838-2841
CN  - DCCT/EDIC Research Group
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20190206
PL  - United States
TA  - Diabetes Care
JT  - Diabetes care
JID - 7805975
EDAT- 2019/02/08 06:00
MHDA- 2019/02/08 06:00
CRDT- 2019/02/08 06:00
PHST- 2018/07/23 00:00 [received]
PHST- 2019/01/08 00:00 [accepted]
PHST- 2019/02/08 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2019/02/08 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2019/02/08 06:00 [medline]
AID - dc18-1574 [pii]
AID - 10.2337/dc18-1574 [doi]
PST - aheadofprint
SO  - Diabetes Care. 2019 Feb 6. pii: dc18-1574. doi: 10.2337/dc18-1574.

PMID- 30705064
OWN - NLM
STAT- Publisher
LR  - 20190201
IS  - 1935-5548 (Electronic)
IS  - 0149-5992 (Linking)
DP  - 2019 Jan 31
TI  - Effect of Glucose Improvement on Spirometric Maneuvers in Patients With Type 2
      Diabetes: The Sweet Breath Study.
LID - dc181948 [pii]
LID - 10.2337/dc18-1948 [doi]
AB  - OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes exerts a deleterious effect on lung function. However,
      it is unknown whether an improvement in glycemic control ameliorates pulmonary
      function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Prospective interventional study with 60
      patients with type 2 diabetes and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) </=90%
      of predicted. Spirometric maneuvers were evaluated at baseline and after a
      3-month period in which antidiabetic therapy was intensified. Those with an HbA1c
      reduction of >/=0.5% were considered to be good responders (n = 35). RESULTS:
      Good responders exhibited a significant improvement in spirometric values between
      baseline and the end of the study (forced vital capacity [FVC]: 78.5 +/- 12.6%
      vs. 83.3 +/- 14.7%, P = 0.029]; FEV1: 75.6 +/- 15.3% vs. 80.9 +/- 15.4%, P =
      0.010; and peak expiratory flow [PEF]: 80.4 +/- 21.6% vs. 89.2 +/- 21.0%, P =
      0.007). However, no changes were observed in the group of nonresponders when the 
      same parameters were evaluated (P = 0.586, P = 0.987, and P = 0.413,
      respectively). Similarly, the initial percentage of patients with a
      nonobstructive ventilatory defect and with an abnormal FEV1 decreased
      significantly only among good responders. In addition, the absolute change in
      HbA1c inversely correlated to increases in FEV1 (r = -0.370, P = 0.029) and PEF
      (r = -0.471, P = 0.004) in the responders group. Finally, stepwise multivariate
      regression analysis showed that the absolute change in HbA1c independently
      predicted increased FEV1 (R (2) = 0.175) and PEF (R (2) = 0.323). In contrast,
      the known duration of type 2 diabetes, but not the amelioration of HbA1c, was
      related to changes in forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of the FVC.
      CONCLUSIONS: In type 2 diabetes, spirometric measurements reflecting central
      airway obstruction and explosive muscle strength exhibit significant amelioration
      after a short improvement in glycemic control.
CI  - (c) 2019 by the American Diabetes Association.
FAU - Gutierrez-Carrasquilla, Liliana
AU  - Gutierrez-Carrasquilla L
AD  - Endocrinology and Nutrition Department, Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova, 
      Obesity, Diabetes and Metabolism Research Group (ODIM), Institut de Recerca
      Biomedica de Lleida (IRBLleida), Universitat de Lleida, Lleida, Catalonia, Spain.
FAU - Sanchez, Enric
AU  - Sanchez E
AD  - Endocrinology and Nutrition Department, Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova, 
      Obesity, Diabetes and Metabolism Research Group (ODIM), Institut de Recerca
      Biomedica de Lleida (IRBLleida), Universitat de Lleida, Lleida, Catalonia, Spain.
FAU - Barbe, Ferran
AU  - Barbe F
AD  - Respiratory Department, Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova-Santa Maria,
      Translational Research in Respiratory Medicine, Institut de Recerca Biomedica de 
      Lleida (IRBLleida), Universitat de Lleida, Lleida, Catalonia, Spain.
AD  - Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES),
      Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain.
FAU - Dalmases, Mireia
AU  - Dalmases M
AD  - Respiratory Department, Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova-Santa Maria,
      Translational Research in Respiratory Medicine, Institut de Recerca Biomedica de 
      Lleida (IRBLleida), Universitat de Lleida, Lleida, Catalonia, Spain.
AD  - Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES),
      Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain.
FAU - Lopez-Cano, Carolina
AU  - Lopez-Cano C
AD  - Endocrinology and Nutrition Department, Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova, 
      Obesity, Diabetes and Metabolism Research Group (ODIM), Institut de Recerca
      Biomedica de Lleida (IRBLleida), Universitat de Lleida, Lleida, Catalonia, Spain.
FAU - Hernandez, Marta
AU  - Hernandez M
AD  - Endocrinology and Nutrition Department, Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova, 
      Obesity, Diabetes and Metabolism Research Group (ODIM), Institut de Recerca
      Biomedica de Lleida (IRBLleida), Universitat de Lleida, Lleida, Catalonia, Spain.
FAU - Rius, Ferran
AU  - Rius F
AD  - Endocrinology and Nutrition Department, Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova, 
      Obesity, Diabetes and Metabolism Research Group (ODIM), Institut de Recerca
      Biomedica de Lleida (IRBLleida), Universitat de Lleida, Lleida, Catalonia, Spain.
FAU - Carmona, Paola
AU  - Carmona P
AD  - Respiratory Department, Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova-Santa Maria,
      Translational Research in Respiratory Medicine, Institut de Recerca Biomedica de 
      Lleida (IRBLleida), Universitat de Lleida, Lleida, Catalonia, Spain.
FAU - Hernandez, Cristina
AU  - Hernandez C
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3109-1721
AD  - Endocrinology and Nutrition Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron,
      Diabetes and Metabolism Research Unit, Vall d'Hebron Institut de Recerca (VHIR), 
      Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
AD  - CIBERDEM, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain.
FAU - Simo, Rafael
AU  - Simo R
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0475-3096
AD  - Endocrinology and Nutrition Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron,
      Diabetes and Metabolism Research Unit, Vall d'Hebron Institut de Recerca (VHIR), 
      Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
      rafael.simo@vhebron.net.
AD  - CIBERDEM, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain.
FAU - Lecube, Albert
AU  - Lecube A
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9684-0183
AD  - Endocrinology and Nutrition Department, Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova, 
      Obesity, Diabetes and Metabolism Research Group (ODIM), Institut de Recerca
      Biomedica de Lleida (IRBLleida), Universitat de Lleida, Lleida, Catalonia, Spain 
      alecube@gmail.com.
AD  - CIBERDEM, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20190131
PL  - United States
TA  - Diabetes Care
JT  - Diabetes care
JID - 7805975
EDAT- 2019/02/02 06:00
MHDA- 2019/02/02 06:00
CRDT- 2019/02/02 06:00
PHST- 2018/09/16 00:00 [received]
PHST- 2019/01/08 00:00 [accepted]
PHST- 2019/02/02 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2019/02/02 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2019/02/02 06:00 [medline]
AID - dc18-1948 [pii]
AID - 10.2337/dc18-1948 [doi]
PST - aheadofprint
SO  - Diabetes Care. 2019 Jan 31. pii: dc18-1948. doi: 10.2337/dc18-1948.

PMID- 30705063
OWN - NLM
STAT- Publisher
LR  - 20190201
IS  - 1935-5548 (Electronic)
IS  - 0149-5992 (Linking)
DP  - 2019 Jan 31
TI  - The Impact of Obesity on the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Among Women With
      Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
LID - dc181738 [pii]
LID - 10.2337/dc18-1738 [doi]
AB  - OBJECTIVE: The nature of the independent relationship between polycystic ovary
      syndrome (PCOS) and type 2 diabetes remains unclear. Few studies have aimed to
      clarify this relationship independent of obesity in longitudinal population-based
      cohorts. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used the Australian Longitudinal Study
      on Women's Health (ALSWH) (2000-2015) database to estimate nationwide incidence
      rates and predictors of type 2 diabetes among women aged 18-42 using person-time 
      and survival analysis. RESULTS: Over a follow-up of 1,919 person-years (PYs), 186
      women developed type 2 diabetes. The incidence rate was 4.19/1,000 and 1.02/1,000
      PYs (P < 0.001) in PCOS and control subjects. On subgroup analyses across
      healthy-weight, overweight, and obese categories of women, the incidence rates
      for type 2 diabetes were 3.21, 4.67, and 8.80, whereas incidence rate ratios were
      4.68, 3.52, and 2.36 (P < 0.005) in PCOS versus age-matched control subjects.
      PCOS was one of the most influential predictors for type 2 diabetes in the entire
      cohort (hazard ratio 3.23, 95% CI 2.07-5.05, P < 0.001) adjusting for BMI,
      education, area of residence, and family history of type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS:
      Women with PCOS are at an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, irrespective of age 
      and BMI. The incidence of type 2 diabetes increases substantially with increasing
      obesity; yet, PCOS adds a greater relative risk in lean women. Based on the
      overall moderate absolute clinical risk demonstrated here, guideline
      recommendations suggest type 2 diabetes screening every 1-3 years in all women
      with PCOS, across BMI categories and age ranges, with frequency influenced by
      additional type 2 diabetes risk factors.
CI  - (c) 2019 by the American Diabetes Association.
FAU - Kakoly, Nadira S
AU  - Kakoly NS
AD  - Monash Centre for Health Research and Implementation, School of Public Health and
      Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.
FAU - Earnest, Arul
AU  - Earnest A
AD  - Monash Centre for Health Research and Implementation, School of Public Health and
      Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.
FAU - Teede, Helena J
AU  - Teede HJ
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7609-577X
AD  - Monash Centre for Health Research and Implementation, School of Public Health and
      Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.
AD  - Diabetes and Vascular Medicine Unit, Monash Health, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.
AD  - Monash Partners Academic Health Sciences Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
FAU - Moran, Lisa J
AU  - Moran LJ
AD  - Monash Centre for Health Research and Implementation, School of Public Health and
      Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.
FAU - Joham, Anju E
AU  - Joham AE
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6307-2568
AD  - Monash Centre for Health Research and Implementation, School of Public Health and
      Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
      anju.joham@monash.edu.
AD  - Diabetes and Vascular Medicine Unit, Monash Health, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20190131
PL  - United States
TA  - Diabetes Care
JT  - Diabetes care
JID - 7805975
EDAT- 2019/02/02 06:00
MHDA- 2019/02/02 06:00
CRDT- 2019/02/02 06:00
PHST- 2018/08/15 00:00 [received]
PHST- 2019/01/09 00:00 [accepted]
PHST- 2019/02/02 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2019/02/02 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2019/02/02 06:00 [medline]
AID - dc18-1738 [pii]
AID - 10.2337/dc18-1738 [doi]
PST - aheadofprint
SO  - Diabetes Care. 2019 Jan 31. pii: dc18-1738. doi: 10.2337/dc18-1738.