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The NASA Twins Study: A multidimensional analysis of a year-long human spaceflight.

Garrett-Bakelman FE, Darshi M, Green SJ, Gur RC, Lin L, Macias BR, McKenna MJ, Meydan C, Mishra T, Nasrini J, Piening BD, Rizzardi LF, Sharma K, Siamwala JH, Taylor L, Vitaterna MH, Afkarian M, Afshinnekoo E, Ahadi S, Ambati A, Arya M, Bezdan D, Callahan CM, Chen S, Choi AMK, Chlipala GE, Contrepois K, Covington M, Crucian BE, De Vivo I, Dinges DF, Ebert DJ, Feinberg JI, Gandara JA, George KA, Goutsias J, Grills GS, Hargens AR, Heer M, Hillary RP, Hoofnagle AN, Hook VYH, Jenkinson G, Jiang P, Keshavarzian A, Laurie SS, Lee-McMullen B, Lumpkins SB, MacKay M, Maienschein-Cline MG, Melnick AM, Moore TM, Nakahira K, Patel HH, Pietrzyk R, Rao V, Saito R, Salins DN, Schilling JM, Sears DD, Sheridan CK, Stenger MB, Tryggvadottir R, Urban AE, Vaisar T, Van Espen B, Zhang J, Ziegler MG, Zwart SR, Charles JB, Kundrot CE, Scott GBI, Bailey SM, Basner M, Feinberg AP, Lee SMC, Mason CE, Mignot E, Rana BK, Smith SM, Snyder MP, Turek FW.

Science. 2019 Apr 12;364(6436). pii: eaau8650. doi: 10.1126/science.aau8650.


Spaceflight-related ocular changes: the potential role of genetics, and the potential of B vitamins as a countermeasure.

Smith SM, Zwart SR.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2018 Nov;21(6):481-488. doi: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000510.


Immune System Dysregulation During Spaceflight: Potential Countermeasures for Deep Space Exploration Missions.

Crucian BE, Choukèr A, Simpson RJ, Mehta S, Marshall G, Smith SM, Zwart SR, Heer M, Ponomarev S, Whitmire A, Frippiat JP, Douglas GL, Lorenzi H, Buchheim JI, Makedonas G, Ginsburg GS, Ott CM, Pierson DL, Krieger SS, Baecker N, Sams C.

Front Immunol. 2018 Jun 28;9:1437. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.01437. eCollection 2018. Review.


Dietary acid load and bone turnover during long-duration spaceflight and bed rest.

Zwart SR, Rice BL, Dlouhy H, Shackelford LC, Heer M, Koslovsky MD, Smith SM.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2018 May 1;107(5):834-844. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy029.


Increased core body temperature in astronauts during long-duration space missions.

Stahn AC, Werner A, Opatz O, Maggioni MA, Steinach M, von Ahlefeld VW, Moore A, Crucian BE, Smith SM, Zwart SR, Schlabs T, Mendt S, Trippel T, Koralewski E, Koch J, Choukèr A, Reitz G, Shang P, Röcker L, Kirsch KA, Gunga HC.

Sci Rep. 2017 Nov 23;7(1):16180. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-15560-w.


Effects of short-term mild hypercapnia during head-down tilt on intracranial pressure and ocular structures in healthy human subjects.

Laurie SS, Vizzeri G, Taibbi G, Ferguson CR, Hu X, Lee SMC, Ploutz-Snyder R, Smith SM, Zwart SR, Stenger MB.

Physiol Rep. 2017 Jun;5(11). pii: e13302. doi: 10.14814/phy2.13302.


Astronaut ophthalmic syndrome.

Zwart SR, Gibson CR, Gregory JF, Mader TH, Stover PJ, Zeisel SH, Smith SM.

FASEB J. 2017 Sep;31(9):3746-3756. doi: 10.1096/fj.201700294. Epub 2017 May 25.


Excretion of Zinc and Copper Increases in Men during 3 Weeks of Bed Rest, with or without Artificial Gravity.

Heacox HN, Gillman PL, Zwart SR, Smith SM.

J Nutr. 2017 Jun;147(6):1113-1120. doi: 10.3945/jn.117.247437. Epub 2017 May 10.


Effects of high-protein intake on bone turnover in long-term bed rest in women.

Heer M, Baecker N, Frings-Meuthen P, Graf S, Zwart SR, Biolo G, Smith SM.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2017 May;42(5):537-546. doi: 10.1139/apnm-2016-0292. Epub 2017 Jan 19.


High dietary iron increases oxidative stress and radiosensitivity in the rat retina and vasculature after exposure to fractionated gamma radiation.

Theriot CA, Westby CM, Morgan JLL, Zwart SR, Zanello SB.

NPJ Microgravity. 2016 May 5;2:16014. doi: 10.1038/npjmgrav.2016.14. eCollection 2016.


Magnesium and Space Flight.

Smith SM, Zwart SR.

Nutrients. 2015 Dec 8;7(12):10209-22. doi: 10.3390/nu7125528.


Bone metabolism and renal stone risk during International Space Station missions.

Smith SM, Heer M, Shackelford LC, Sibonga JD, Spatz J, Pietrzyk RA, Hudson EK, Zwart SR.

Bone. 2015 Dec;81:712-720. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2015.10.002. Epub 2015 Oct 8.


Genotype, B-vitamin status, and androgens affect spaceflight-induced ophthalmic changes.

Zwart SR, Gregory JF, Zeisel SH, Gibson CR, Mader TH, Kinchen JM, Ueland PM, Ploutz-Snyder R, Heer MA, Smith SM.

FASEB J. 2016 Jan;30(1):141-8. doi: 10.1096/fj.15-278457. Epub 2015 Aug 27.


Space Environmental Factor Impacts upon Murine Colon Microbiota and Mucosal Homeostasis.

Ritchie LE, Taddeo SS, Weeks BR, Lima F, Bloomfield SA, Azcarate-Peril MA, Zwart SR, Smith SM, Turner ND.

PLoS One. 2015 Jun 17;10(6):e0125792. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0125792. eCollection 2015.


Body mass changes during long-duration spaceflight: response.

Zwart SR, Launius RD, Coen GK, Morgan JL, Charles JB, Smith SM.

Aviat Space Environ Med. 2014 Dec;85(12):1229-30. No abstract available.


Body mass changes during long-duration spaceflight.

Zwart SR, Launius RD, Coen GK, Morgan JL, Charles JB, Smith SM.

Aviat Space Environ Med. 2014 Sep;85(9):897-904. doi: 10.3357/ASEM.3979.2014.


Sex-specific responses of bone metabolism and renal stone risk during bed rest.

Morgan JL, Heer M, Hargens AR, Macias BR, Hudson EK, Shackelford LC, Zwart SR, Smith SM.

Physiol Rep. 2014 Aug 7;2(8). pii: e12119. doi: 10.14814/phy2.12119. Print 2014 Aug 1.


Fifty years of human space travel: implications for bone and calcium research.

Smith SM, Abrams SA, Davis-Street JE, Heer M, O'Brien KO, Wastney ME, Zwart SR.

Annu Rev Nutr. 2014;34:377-400. doi: 10.1146/annurev-nutr-071813-105440. Epub 2014 Jun 2. Review.


Calcium kinetics during bed rest with artificial gravity and exercise countermeasures.

Smith SM, Castaneda-Sceppa C, O'Brien KO, Abrams SA, Gillman P, Brooks NE, Cloutier GJ, Heer M, Zwart SR, Wastney ME.

Osteoporos Int. 2014 Sep;25(9):2237-44. doi: 10.1007/s00198-014-2754-x. Epub 2014 May 27.


Plasma cytokine concentrations indicate that in vivo hormonal regulation of immunity is altered during long-duration spaceflight.

Crucian BE, Zwart SR, Mehta S, Uchakin P, Quiriarte HD, Pierson D, Sams CF, Smith SM.

J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2014 Oct;34(10):778-86. doi: 10.1089/jir.2013.0129. Epub 2014 Apr 4.


Men and women in space: bone loss and kidney stone risk after long-duration spaceflight.

Smith SM, Zwart SR, Heer M, Hudson EK, Shackelford L, Morgan JL.

J Bone Miner Res. 2014 Jul;29(7):1639-45. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.2185.


Increased dietary iron and radiation in rats promote oxidative stress, induce localized and systemic immune system responses, and alter colon mucosal environment.

Morgan JL, Ritchie LE, Crucian BE, Theriot C, Wu H, Sams C, Smith SM, Turner ND, Zwart SR.

FASEB J. 2014 Mar;28(3):1486-98. doi: 10.1096/fj.13-239418. Epub 2013 Dec 13.


Iron status and its relations with oxidative damage and bone loss during long-duration space flight on the International Space Station.

Zwart SR, Morgan JL, Smith SM.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jul;98(1):217-23. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.056465. Epub 2013 May 29.


A 250 μg/week dose of vitamin D was as effective as a 50 μg/d dose in healthy adults, but a regimen of four weekly followed by monthly doses of 1250 μg raised the risk of hypercalciuria.

Zwart SR, Parsons H, Kimlin M, Innis SM, Locke JP, Smith SM.

Br J Nutr. 2013 Nov;110(10):1866-72. doi: 10.1017/S000711451300113X. Epub 2013 Apr 18.


Space flight calcium: implications for astronaut health, spacecraft operations, and Earth.

Smith SM, McCoy T, Gazda D, Morgan JL, Heer M, Zwart SR.

Nutrients. 2012 Dec 18;4(12):2047-68. doi: 10.3390/nu4122047. Review.


Bone metabolism and nutritional status during 30-day head-down-tilt bed rest.

Morgan JL, Zwart SR, Heer M, Ploutz-Snyder R, Ericson K, Smith SM.

J Appl Physiol (1985). 2012 Nov;113(10):1519-29. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01064.2012. Epub 2012 Sep 20. Erratum in: J Appl Physiol (1985). 2014 May 15;116(10):1343.


Serum sclerostin increases in healthy adult men during bed rest.

Spatz JM, Fields EE, Yu EW, Divieti Pajevic P, Bouxsein ML, Sibonga JD, Zwart SR, Smith SM.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Sep;97(9):E1736-40. doi: 10.1210/jc.2012-1579. Epub 2012 Jul 5.


Benefits for bone from resistance exercise and nutrition in long-duration spaceflight: Evidence from biochemistry and densitometry.

Smith SM, Heer MA, Shackelford LC, Sibonga JD, Ploutz-Snyder L, Zwart SR.

J Bone Miner Res. 2012 Sep;27(9):1896-906. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.1647.


Saturation diving alters folate status and biomarkers of DNA damage and repair.

Zwart SR, Jessup JM, Ji J, Smith SM.

PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e31058. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031058. Epub 2012 Feb 7.


Vision changes after spaceflight are related to alterations in folate- and vitamin B-12-dependent one-carbon metabolism.

Zwart SR, Gibson CR, Mader TH, Ericson K, Ploutz-Snyder R, Heer M, Smith SM.

J Nutr. 2012 Mar;142(3):427-31. doi: 10.3945/jn.111.154245. Epub 2012 Feb 1.


Long-duration space flight and bed rest effects on testosterone and other steroids.

Smith SM, Heer M, Wang Z, Huntoon CL, Zwart SR.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Jan;97(1):270-8. doi: 10.1210/jc.2011-2233. Epub 2011 Nov 2. Erratum in: J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Sep;97(9):3390.


Response to vitamin D intake: from the Antarctic to the Institute of Medicine.

Smith SM, Zwart SR, Ploutz-Snyder RJ, Locke JP.

J Nutr. 2011 May;141(5):985-6. No abstract available.


Vitamin K status in spaceflight and ground-based models of spaceflight.

Zwart SR, Booth SL, Peterson JW, Wang Z, Smith SM.

J Bone Miner Res. 2011 May;26(5):948-54. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.289.


Response to vitamin D supplementation during Antarctic winter is related to BMI, and supplementation can mitigate Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation.

Zwart SR, Mehta SK, Ploutz-Snyder R, Bourbeau Y, Locke JP, Pierson DL, Smith SM.

J Nutr. 2011 Apr 1;141(4):692-7.


Thyroid status of Space Shuttle crewmembers: effects of iodine removal.

Smith SM, Zwart SR, McMonigal KA, Huntoon CL.

Aviat Space Environ Med. 2011 Jan;82(1):49-51.


Assessment of nutrient stability in foods from the space food system after long-duration spaceflight on the ISS.

Zwart SR, Kloeris VL, Perchonok MH, Braby L, Smith SM.

J Food Sci. 2009 Sep;74(7):H209-17. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01265.x.


Stability of blood analytes after storage in BD SST tubes for 12 mo.

Mathew G, Zwart SR, Smith SM.

Clin Biochem. 2009 Nov;42(16-17):1732-4. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2009.07.015. Epub 2009 Jul 23.


Nutritional status assessment before, during, and after long-duration head-down bed rest.

Zwart SR, Oliver SA, Fesperman JV, Kala G, Krauhs J, Ericson K, Smith SM.

Aviat Space Environ Med. 2009 May;80(5 Suppl):A15-22.


Stability of analytes related to clinical chemistry and bone metabolism in blood specimens after delayed processing.

Zwart SR, Wolf M, Rogers A, Rodgers S, Gillman PL, Hitchcox K, Ericson KL, Smith SM.

Clin Biochem. 2009 Jun;42(9):907-10. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2009.02.010. Epub 2009 Feb 26.


Vitamin D supplementation during Antarctic winter.

Smith SM, Gardner KK, Locke J, Zwart SR.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Apr;89(4):1092-8. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.27189. Epub 2009 Feb 18.


Effects of artificial gravity during bed rest on bone metabolism in humans.

Smith SM, Zwart SR, Heer MA, Baecker N, Evans HJ, Feiveson AH, Shackelford LC, Leblanc AD.

J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009 Jul;107(1):47-53. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.91134.2008. Epub 2008 Dec 12. Erratum in: J Appl Physiol (1985). 2014 Jun 15;116(12):1641.


Effects of 21 days of bed rest, with or without artificial gravity, on nutritional status of humans.

Zwart SR, Crawford GE, Gillman PL, Kala G, Rodgers AS, Rogers A, Inniss AM, Rice BL, Ericson K, Coburn S, Bourbeau Y, Hudson E, Mathew G, Dekerlegand DE, Sams CF, Heer MA, Paloski WH, Smith SM.

J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009 Jul;107(1):54-62. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.91136.2008. Epub 2008 Dec 12. Erratum in: J Appl Physiol (1985). 2014 Jun 15;116(12):1642.


Body iron stores and oxidative damage in humans increased during and after a 10- to 12-day undersea dive.

Zwart SR, Kala G, Smith SM.

J Nutr. 2009 Jan;139(1):90-5. doi: 10.3945/jn.108.097592. Epub 2008 Dec 3.


Nutritional biochemistry of spaceflight.

Smith SM, Zwart SR.

Adv Clin Chem. 2008;46:87-130. Review.


WISE-2005: supine treadmill exercise within lower body negative pressure and flywheel resistive exercise as a countermeasure to bed rest-induced bone loss in women during 60-day simulated microgravity.

Smith SM, Zwart SR, Heer M, Lee SM, Baecker N, Meuche S, Macias BR, Shackelford LC, Schneider S, Hargens AR.

Bone. 2008 Mar;42(3):572-81. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2007.11.015. Epub 2007 Dec 14.


Lower body negative pressure treadmill exercise as a countermeasure for bed rest-induced bone loss in female identical twins.

Zwart SR, Hargens AR, Lee SM, Macias BR, Watenpaugh DE, Tse K, Smith SM.

Bone. 2007 Feb;40(2):529-37. Epub 2006 Oct 27.


Nutritional status is altered in the self-neglecting elderly.

Smith SM, Mathews Oliver SA, Zwart SR, Kala G, Kelly PA, Goodwin JS, Dyer CB.

J Nutr. 2006 Oct;136(10):2534-41.


Assessment of urinary N-telopeptide: point-of-care testing, sample types, and relationship to urinary helical peptide excretion.

Zwart SR, DeKerlegand DE, Davis-Street JE, Smith SM.

Clin Chim Acta. 2006 Oct;372(1-2):65-9. Epub 2006 May 5.


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