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Appl Environ Microbiol. 2015 Oct 16;82(1):116-23. doi: 10.1128/AEM.02489-15. Print 2016 Jan 1.

Inactivation Kinetics and Mechanism of a Human Norovirus Surrogate on Stainless Steel Coupons via Chlorine Dioxide Gas.

Author information

1
Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Food, Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.
2
Department of Food Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA.
3
Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.
4
Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA.
5
College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA.
6
Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA li.926@osu.edu.

Abstract

Acute gastroenteritis caused by human norovirus is a significant public health issue. Fresh produce and seafood are examples of high-risk foods associated with norovirus outbreaks. Food contact surfaces also have the potential to harbor noroviruses if exposed to fecal contamination, aerosolized vomitus, or infected food handlers. Currently, there is no effective measure to decontaminate norovirus on food contact surfaces. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas is a strong oxidizer and is used as a decontaminating agent in food processing plants. The objective of this study was to determine the kinetics and mechanism of ClO2 gas inactivation of a norovirus surrogate, murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1), on stainless steel (SS) coupons. MNV-1 was inoculated on SS coupons at the concentration of 10(7) PFU/coupon. The samples were treated with ClO2 gas at 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 4 mg/liter for up to 5 min at 25°C and a relative humidity of 85%, and virus survival was determined by plaque assay. Treatment of the SS coupons with ClO2 gas at 2 mg/liter for 5 min and 2.5 mg/liter for 2 min resulted in at least a 3-log reduction in MNV-1, while no infectious virus was recovered at a concentration of 4 mg/liter even within 1 min of treatment. Furthermore, it was found that the mechanism of ClO2 gas inactivation included degradation of viral protein, disruption of viral structure, and degradation of viral genomic RNA. In conclusion, treatment with ClO2 gas can serve as an effective method to inactivate a human norovirus surrogate on SS contact surfaces.

PMID:
26475110
PMCID:
PMC4702624
DOI:
10.1128/AEM.02489-15
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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