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The D-alanyl-d-alanine carboxypeptidase enzyme is essential for virulence in the Schu S4 strain of Francisella tularensis and a dacD mutant is able to provide protection against a pneumonic challenge.

Kijek TM, Mou S, Bachert BA, Kuehl KA, Williams JA, Daye SP, Worsham PL, Bozue JA.

Microb Pathog. 2019 Sep 9;137:103742. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103742. [Epub ahead of print]


Correction: Two stable variants of Burkholderia pseudomallei strain MSHR5848 express broadly divergent in vitro phenotypes associated with their virulence differences.

Shea AA, Bernhards RC, Cote CK, Chase CJ, Koehler JW, Klimko CP, Ladner JT, Rozak DA, Wolcott MJ, Fetterer DP, Kern SJ, Koroleva GI, Lovett SP, Palacios GF, Toothman RG, Bozue JA, Worsham PL, Welkos SL.

PLoS One. 2019 Apr 4;14(4):e0215200. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0215200. eCollection 2019.


Bacteriophage-associated genes responsible for the widely divergent phenotypes of variants of Burkholderia pseudomallei strain MSHR5848.

DeShazer D, Lovett S, Richardson J, Koroleva G, Kuehl K, Amemiya K, Sun M, Worsham P, Welkos S.

J Med Microbiol. 2019 Feb;68(2):263-278. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.000908. Epub 2019 Jan 10.


Disease progression in mice exposed to low-doses of aerosolized clinical isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei.

Trevino SR, Klimko CP, Reed MC, Aponte-Cuadrado MJ, Hunter M, Shoe JL, Meyer JR, Dankmeyer JL, Biryukov SS, Quirk AV, Fritts KA, Kern SJ, Fetterer DP, Kohler LJ, Toothman RG, Bozue JA, Schellhase CW, Kreiselmeier N, Daye SP, Welkos SL, Soffler C, Worsham PL, Waag DM, Amemiya K, Cote CK.

PLoS One. 2018 Nov 30;13(11):e0208277. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0208277. eCollection 2018.


A spontaneous mutation in kdsD, a biosynthesis gene for 3 Deoxy-D-manno-Octulosonic Acid, occurred in a ciprofloxacin resistant strain of Francisella tularensis and caused a high level of attenuation in murine models of tularemia.

Chance T, Chua J, Toothman RG, Ladner JT, Nuss JE, Raymond JL, Biot FV, Demons S, Miller L, Halasohoris S, Mou S, Koroleva G, Lovett S, Palacios G, Vietri NJ, Worsham PL, Cote CK, Kijek TM, Bozue JA.

PLoS One. 2017 Mar 22;12(3):e0174106. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0174106. eCollection 2017.


Characterization of pathogenesis of and immune response to Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243 using both inhalational and intraperitoneal infection models in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice.

Bearss JJ, Hunter M, Dankmeyer JL, Fritts KA, Klimko CP, Weaver CH, Shoe JL, Quirk AV, Toothman RG, Webster WM, Fetterer DP, Bozue JA, Worsham PL, Welkos SL, Amemiya K, Cote CK.

PLoS One. 2017 Feb 24;12(2):e0172627. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172627. eCollection 2017.


Two stable variants of Burkholderia pseudomallei strain MSHR5848 express broadly divergent in vitro phenotypes associated with their virulence differences.

Shea AA, Bernhards RC, Cote CK, Chase CJ, Koehler JW, Klimko CP, Ladner JT, Rozak DA, Wolcott MJ, Fetterer DP, Kern SJ, Koroleva GI, Lovett SP, Palacios GF, Toothman RG, Bozue JA, Worsham PL, Welkos SL.

PLoS One. 2017 Feb 10;12(2):e0171363. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0171363. eCollection 2017. Erratum in: PLoS One. 2019 Apr 4;14(4):e0215200.


Characterization of in vitro phenotypes of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei strains potentially associated with persistent infection in mice.

Bernhards RC, Cote CK, Amemiya K, Waag DM, Klimko CP, Worsham PL, Welkos SL.

Arch Microbiol. 2017 Mar;199(2):277-301. doi: 10.1007/s00203-016-1303-8. Epub 2016 Oct 13.


AOAC SMPR(®) 2016.008.

Lindler L, Appler J, Ballin J, Bauer T, Beck L, Boylan J, Bull R, Cahall R, Damer K, Davenport M, Egan C, Gage K, Gibbons J, Hadfield TL, Johns M, Lesho M, Maple L, Pals T, Perry R, Retford M, Scheckelhoff M, Shah S, Sozhamannan S, Wagner D, Watson D, Worsham P, Coates SG.

J AOAC Int. 2016 Jul;99(4):1095-1100. doi: 10.5740/jaoacint.SMPR2016.008. No abstract available.


Francisella tularensis type B ΔdsbA mutant protects against type A strain and induces strong inflammatory cytokine and Th1-like antibody response in vivo.

Straskova A, Spidlova P, Mou S, Worsham P, Putzova D, Pavkova I, Stulik J.

Pathog Dis. 2015 Nov;73(8):ftv058. doi: 10.1093/femspd/ftv058. Epub 2015 Aug 6.


Comparison of the early host immune response to two widely diverse virulent strains of Burkholderia pseudomallei that cause acute or chronic infections in BALB/c mice.

Amemiya K, Dankmeyer JL, Fetterer DP, Worsham PL, Welkos SL, Cote CK.

Microb Pathog. 2015 Sep;86:53-63. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2015.07.004. Epub 2015 Jul 7.


Characterization of Burkholderia pseudomallei Strains Using a Murine Intraperitoneal Infection Model and In Vitro Macrophage Assays.

Welkos SL, Klimko CP, Kern SJ, Bearss JJ, Bozue JA, Bernhards RC, Trevino SR, Waag DM, Amemiya K, Worsham PL, Cote CK.

PLoS One. 2015 Apr 24;10(4):e0124667. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124667. eCollection 2015.


In vitro antibiotic susceptibilities of Yersinia pestis determined by broth microdilution following CLSI methods.

Heine HS, Hershfield J, Marchand C, Miller L, Halasohoris S, Purcell BK, Worsham PL.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Apr;59(4):1919-21. doi: 10.1128/AAC.04548-14. Epub 2015 Jan 12.


Interrogation of the Burkholderia pseudomallei genome to address differential virulence among isolates.

Challacombe JF, Stubben CJ, Klimko CP, Welkos SL, Kern SJ, Bozue JA, Worsham PL, Cote CK, Wolfe DN.

PLoS One. 2014 Dec 23;9(12):e115951. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0115951. eCollection 2014. Erratum in: PLoS One. 2015;10(3):e0122178.


Development of real-time PCR assays for specific detection of hmsH, hmsF, hmsR, and irp2 located within the 102-kb pgm locus of Yersinia pestis.

Gaddy CE, Cuevas PF, Hartman LJ, Howe GB, Worsham PL, Minogue TD.

Mol Cell Probes. 2014 Oct-Dec;28(5-6):288-95. doi: 10.1016/j.mcp.2014.08.004. Epub 2014 Sep 26.


Characterization of tetratricopeptide repeat-like proteins in Francisella tularensis and identification of a novel locus required for virulence.

Dankova V, Balonova L, Straskova A, Spidlova P, Putzova D, Kijek T, Bozue J, Cote C, Mou S, Worsham P, Szotakova B, Cerveny L, Stulik J.

Infect Immun. 2014 Dec;82(12):5035-48. doi: 10.1128/IAI.01620-14. Epub 2014 Sep 22.


A Yersinia pestis tat mutant is attenuated in bubonic and small-aerosol pneumonic challenge models of infection but not as attenuated by intranasal challenge.

Bozue J, Cote CK, Chance T, Kugelman J, Kern SJ, Kijek TK, Jenkins A, Mou S, Moody K, Fritz D, Robinson CG, Bell T, Worsham P.

PLoS One. 2014 Aug 7;9(8):e104524. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104524. eCollection 2014.


Multiple roles of Myd88 in the immune response to the plague F1-V vaccine and in protection against an aerosol challenge of Yersinia pestis CO92 in mice.

Dankmeyer JL, Fast RL, Cote CK, Worsham PL, Fritz D, Fisher D, Kern SJ, Merkel T, Kirschning CJ, Amemiya K.

J Immunol Res. 2014;2014:341820. doi: 10.1155/2014/341820. Epub 2014 Jun 4.


Virulence of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in aerosol models.

Worsham PL, Mou S, Cote CK, Fritz D.

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012;954:217-22. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-3561-7_27. No abstract available.


Cytotoxic necrotizing factor is an effective immunogen in a Yersinia pseudotuberculosis aerosol mouse model.

Mou S, Cote CK, Worsham PL.

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012;954:179-81. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-3561-7_23. No abstract available.


Novel plasmids and resistance phenotypes in Yersinia pestis: unique plasmid inventory of strain Java 9 mediates high levels of arsenic resistance.

Eppinger M, Radnedge L, Andersen G, Vietri N, Severson G, Mou S, Ravel J, Worsham PL.

PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e32911. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032911. Epub 2012 Mar 30.


Bacillus anthracis comparative genome analysis in support of the Amerithrax investigation.

Rasko DA, Worsham PL, Abshire TG, Stanley ST, Bannan JD, Wilson MR, Langham RJ, Decker RS, Jiang L, Read TD, Phillippy AM, Salzberg SL, Pop M, Van Ert MN, Kenefic LJ, Keim PS, Fraser-Liggett CM, Ravel J.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Mar 22;108(12):5027-32. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1016657108. Epub 2011 Mar 7.


The role of the phoPQ operon in the pathogenesis of the fully virulent CO92 strain of Yersinia pestis and the IP32953 strain of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

Bozue J, Mou S, Moody KL, Cote CK, Trevino S, Fritz D, Worsham P.

Microb Pathog. 2011 Jun;50(6):314-21. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2011.02.005. Epub 2011 Feb 12.


Human anti-plague monoclonal antibodies protect mice from Yersinia pestis in a bubonic plague model.

Xiao X, Zhu Z, Dankmeyer JL, Wormald MM, Fast RL, Worsham PL, Cote CK, Amemiya K, Dimitrov DS.

PLoS One. 2010 Oct 13;5(10):e13047. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013047.


Genome sequence of the deep-rooted Yersinia pestis strain Angola reveals new insights into the evolution and pangenome of the plague bacterium.

Eppinger M, Worsham PL, Nikolich MP, Riley DR, Sebastian Y, Mou S, Achtman M, Lindler LE, Ravel J.

J Bacteriol. 2010 Mar;192(6):1685-99. doi: 10.1128/JB.01518-09. Epub 2010 Jan 8.


CpG oligodeoxynucleotides augment the murine immune response to the Yersinia pestis F1-V vaccine in bubonic and pneumonic models of plague.

Amemiya K, Meyers JL, Rogers TE, Fast RL, Bassett AD, Worsham PL, Powell BS, Norris SL, Krieg AM, Adamovicz JJ.

Vaccine. 2009 Apr 6;27(16):2220-9. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.02.016. Epub 2009 Feb 13.


A strategy to verify the absence of the pgm locus in Yersinia pestis strain candidates for select agent exemption.

Jenkins AL, Worsham PL, Welkos SL.

J Microbiol Methods. 2009 Jun;77(3):316-9. doi: 10.1016/j.mimet.2009.02.013. Epub 2009 Mar 10.


The complete genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis Ames "Ancestor".

Ravel J, Jiang L, Stanley ST, Wilson MR, Decker RS, Read TD, Worsham P, Keim PS, Salzberg SL, Fraser-Liggett CM, Rasko DA.

J Bacteriol. 2009 Jan;191(1):445-6. doi: 10.1128/JB.01347-08. Epub 2008 Oct 24.


An alternative approach to combination vaccines: intradermal administration of isolated components for control of anthrax, botulism, plague and staphylococcal toxic shock.

Morefield GL, Tammariello RF, Purcell BK, Worsham PL, Chapman J, Smith LA, Alarcon JB, Mikszta JA, Ulrich RG.

J Immune Based Ther Vaccines. 2008 Sep 3;6:5. doi: 10.1186/1476-8518-6-5.


Assays for the rapid and specific identification of North American Yersinia pestis and the common laboratory strain CO92.

Vogler AJ, Driebe EM, Lee J, Auerbach RK, Allender CJ, Stanley M, Kubota K, Andersen GL, Radnedge L, Worsham PL, Keim P, Wagner DM.

Biotechniques. 2008 Feb;44(2):201, 203-4, 207.


Pestoides F, an atypical Yersinia pestis strain from the former Soviet Union.

Garcia E, Worsham P, Bearden S, Malfatti S, Lang D, Larimer F, Lindler L, Chain P.

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2007;603:17-22.


Complete genome sequence of Yersinia pestis strains Antiqua and Nepal516: evidence of gene reduction in an emerging pathogen.

Chain PS, Hu P, Malfatti SA, Radnedge L, Larimer F, Vergez LM, Worsham P, Chu MC, Andersen GL.

J Bacteriol. 2006 Jun;188(12):4453-63.


Design and testing for a nontagged F1-V fusion protein as vaccine antigen against bubonic and pneumonic plague.

Powell BS, Andrews GP, Enama JT, Jendrek S, Bolt C, Worsham P, Pullen JK, Ribot W, Hines H, Smith L, Heath DG, Adamovicz JJ.

Biotechnol Prog. 2005 Sep-Oct;21(5):1490-510.


Microevolution and history of the plague bacillus, Yersinia pestis.

Achtman M, Morelli G, Zhu P, Wirth T, Diehl I, Kusecek B, Vogler AJ, Wagner DM, Allender CJ, Easterday WR, Chenal-Francisque V, Worsham P, Thomson NR, Parkhill J, Lindler LE, Carniel E, Keim P.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Dec 21;101(51):17837-42. Epub 2004 Dec 14.


Pestoides F, a Yersinia pestis strain lacking plasminogen activator, is virulent by the aerosol route.

Worsham PL, Roy C.

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2003;529:129-31. No abstract available.


Genome plasticity in Yersinia pestis.

Radnedge L, Agron PG, Worsham PL, Andersen GL.

Microbiology. 2002 Jun;148(Pt 6):1687-98.


Genetic variability of Yersinia pestis isolates as predicted by PCR-based IS100 genotyping and analysis of structural genes encoding glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (glpD).

Motin VL, Georgescu AM, Elliott JM, Hu P, Worsham PL, Ott LL, Slezak TR, Sokhansanj BA, Regala WM, Brubaker RR, Garcia E.

J Bacteriol. 2002 Feb;184(4):1019-27.


Identification and characterization of variable-number tandem repeats in the Yersinia pestis genome.

Klevytska AM, Price LB, Schupp JM, Worsham PL, Wong J, Keim P.

J Clin Microbiol. 2001 Sep;39(9):3179-85.


Identification of nucleotide sequences for the specific and rapid detection of Yersinia pestis.

Radnedge L, Gamez-Chin S, McCready PM, Worsham PL, Andersen GL.

Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001 Aug;67(8):3759-62.


Diversity in a variable-number tandem repeat from Yersinia pestis.

Adair DM, Worsham PL, Hill KK, Klevytska AM, Jackson PJ, Friedlander AM, Keim P.

J Clin Microbiol. 2000 Apr;38(4):1516-9.


Isolation of an asporogenic (spoOA) protective antigen-producing strain of Bacillus anthracis.

Worsham PL, Sowers MR.

Can J Microbiol. 1999 Jan;45(1):1-8.


Protection of mice from fatal bubonic and pneumonic plague by passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies against the F1 protein of Yersinia pestis.

Anderson GW Jr, Worsham PL, Bolt CR, Andrews GP, Welkos SL, Friedlander AM, Burans JP.

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1997 Apr;56(4):471-3.


Recombinant V antigen protects mice against pneumonic and bubonic plague caused by F1-capsule-positive and -negative strains of Yersinia pestis.

Anderson GW Jr, Leary SE, Williamson ED, Titball RW, Welkos SL, Worsham PL, Friedlander AM.

Infect Immun. 1996 Nov;64(11):4580-5.


Pathology of experimental pneumonic plague produced by fraction 1-positive and fraction 1-negative Yersinia pestis in African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops).

Davis KJ, Fritz DL, Pitt ML, Welkos SL, Worsham PL, Friedlander AM.

Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1996 Feb;120(2):156-63.


Relationship between virulence and immunity as revealed in recent studies of the F1 capsule of Yersinia pestis.

Friedlander AM, Welkos SL, Worsham PL, Andrews GP, Heath DG, Anderson GW Jr, Pitt ML, Estep J, Davis K.

Clin Infect Dis. 1995 Oct;21 Suppl 2:S178-81. Review.


Construction of defined F1 negative mutants of virulent Yersinia pestis.

Worsham PL, Stein MP, Welkos SL.

Contrib Microbiol Immunol. 1995;13:325-8. No abstract available.


Studies on the contribution of the F1 capsule-associated plasmid pFra to the virulence of Yersinia pestis.

Welkos SL, Davis KM, Pitt LM, Worsham PL, Freidlander AM.

Contrib Microbiol Immunol. 1995;13:299-305. No abstract available.


Postexposure prophylaxis against experimental inhalation anthrax.

Friedlander AM, Welkos SL, Pitt ML, Ezzell JW, Worsham PL, Rose KJ, Ivins BE, Lowe JR, Howe GB, Mikesell P, et al.

J Infect Dis. 1993 May;167(5):1239-43.


Killer toxin production in Pichia acaciae is associated with linear DNA plasmids.

Worsham PL, Bolen PL.

Curr Genet. 1990 Jul;18(1):77-80.


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