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Sci Rep. 2018 Sep 12;8(1):13656. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-31293-w.

Seismic imaging and petrology explain highly explosive eruptions of Merapi Volcano, Indonesia.

Author information

1
Global Geophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, 40132, Indonesia. sriwid@geoph.itb.ac.id.
2
Research Center for Disaster Mitigation, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, 40132, Indonesia. sriwid@geoph.itb.ac.id.
3
Study Program of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, 40132, Indonesia.
4
Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics, Jakarta, 10720, Indonesia.
5
ISTerre, IRD R219, CNRS, Université de Savoie Mont Blanc, Le Bourget-du-Lac, France.
6
Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Université Sorbonne-Paris-Cité, CNRS, Paris, France.
7
Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, 2601, Australia.
8
Institut des Sciences de la Terre d'Orléans (ISTO), Université d'Orléans-CNRS-BRGM, Orléans, France.
9
Global Geophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, 40132, Indonesia.
10
Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, Geological Agency, Bandung, 40122, Indonesia.

Abstract

Our seismic tomographic images characterize, for the first time, spatial and volumetric details of the subvertical magma plumbing system of Merapi Volcano. We present P- and S-wave arrival time data, which were collected in a dense seismic network, known as DOMERAPI, installed around the volcano for 18 months. The P- and S-wave arrival time data with similar path coverage reveal a high Vp/Vs structure extending from a depth of ≥20 km below mean sea level (MSL) up to the summit of the volcano. Combined with results of petrological studies, our seismic tomography data allow us to propose: (1) the existence of a shallow zone of intense fluid percolation, directly below the summit of the volcano; (2) a main, pre-eruptive magma reservoir at ≥ 10 to 20 km below MSL that is orders of magnitude larger than erupted magma volumes; (3) a deep magma reservoir at MOHO depth which supplies the main reservoir; and (4) an extensive, subvertical fluid-magma-transfer zone from the mantle to the surface. Such high-resolution spatial constraints on the volcano plumbing system as shown are an important advance in our ability to forecast and to mitigate the hazard potential of Merapi's future eruptions.

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