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Production of Pseudotyped Particles to Study Highly Pathogenic Coronaviruses in a Biosafety Level 2 Setting.

Millet JK, Tang T, Nathan L, Jaimes JA, Hsu HL, Daniel S, Whittaker GR.

J Vis Exp. 2019 Mar 1;(145). doi: 10.3791/59010.


A Fluorogenic Peptide Cleavage Assay to Screen for Proteolytic Activity: Applications for coronavirus spike protein activation.

Jaimes JA, Millet JK, Goldstein ME, Whittaker GR, Straus MR.

J Vis Exp. 2019 Jan 9;(143). doi: 10.3791/58892.


Characterizing replication kinetics and plaque production of type I feline infectious peritonitis virus in three feline cell lines.

O'Brien A, Mettelman RC, Volk A, André NM, Whittaker GR, Baker SC.

Virology. 2018 Dec;525:1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2018.08.022. Epub 2018 Sep 8.


Feline coronavirus: Insights into viral pathogenesis based on the spike protein structure and function.

Jaimes JA, Whittaker GR.

Virology. 2018 Apr;517:108-121. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2017.12.027. Epub 2018 Jan 10.


Improving Virus Taxonomy by Recontextualizing Sequence-Based Classification with Biologically Relevant Data: the Case of the Alphacoronavirus 1 Species.

Whittaker GR, André NM, Millet JK.

mSphere. 2018 Jan 3;3(1). pii: e00463-17. doi: 10.1128/mSphereDirect.00463-17. eCollection 2018 Jan-Feb.


Physiological and molecular triggers for SARS-CoV membrane fusion and entry into host cells.

Millet JK, Whittaker GR.

Virology. 2018 Apr;517:3-8. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2017.12.015. Epub 2017 Dec 21. Review.


The SARS-CoV Fusion Peptide Forms an Extended Bipartite Fusion Platform that Perturbs Membrane Order in a Calcium-Dependent Manner.

Lai AL, Millet JK, Daniel S, Freed JH, Whittaker GR.

J Mol Biol. 2017 Dec 8;429(24):3875-3892. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2017.10.017. Epub 2017 Oct 19.


A single dose and long lasting vaccine against pandemic influenza through the controlled release of a heterospecies tandem M2 sequence embedded within detoxified bacterial outer membrane vesicles.

Watkins HC, Pagan CL, Childs HR, Posada S, Chau A, Rios J, Guarino C, DeLisa MP, Whittaker GR, Putnam D.

Vaccine. 2017 Sep 25;35(40):5373-5380. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.08.013. Epub 2017 Aug 31.


Use of AAScatterPlot tool for monitoring the evolution of the hemagglutinin cleavage site in H9 avian influenza viruses.

Lee DW, Whittaker GR.

Bioinformatics. 2017 Aug 15;33(16):2431-2435. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btx203.


A peptide-based approach to evaluate the adaptability of influenza A virus to humans based on its hemagglutinin proteolytic cleavage site.

Straus MR, Whittaker GR.

PLoS One. 2017 Mar 30;12(3):e0174827. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0174827. eCollection 2017.


Safe Recombinant Outer Membrane Vesicles that Display M2e Elicit Heterologous Influenza Protection.

Watkins HC, Rappazzo CG, Higgins JS, Sun X, Brock N, Chau A, Misra A, Cannizzo JPB, King MR, Maines TR, Leifer CA, Whittaker GR, DeLisa MP, Putnam D.

Mol Ther. 2017 Apr 5;25(4):989-1002. doi: 10.1016/j.ymthe.2017.01.010. Epub 2017 Feb 16.


Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV)-based Coronavirus Spike-pseudotyped Particle Production and Infection.

Millet JK, Whittaker GR.

Bio Protoc. 2016 Dec 5;6(23). pii: e2035. doi: 10.21769/BioProtoc.2035.


A camel-derived MERS-CoV with a variant spike protein cleavage site and distinct fusion activation properties.

Millet JK, Goldstein ME, Labitt RN, Hsu HL, Daniel S, Whittaker GR.

Emerg Microbes Infect. 2016 Dec 21;5(12):e126. doi: 10.1038/emi.2016.125.


Viral fusion efficacy of specific H3N2 influenza virus reassortant combinations at single-particle level.

Hsu HL, Millet JK, Costello DA, Whittaker GR, Daniel S.

Sci Rep. 2016 Oct 18;6:35537. doi: 10.1038/srep35537.


Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection is inhibited by griffithsin.

Millet JK, Séron K, Labitt RN, Danneels A, Palmer KE, Whittaker GR, Dubuisson J, Belouzard S.

Antiviral Res. 2016 Sep;133:1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2016.07.011. Epub 2016 Jul 15.


Fusion of Enveloped Viruses in Endosomes.

White JM, Whittaker GR.

Traffic. 2016 Jun;17(6):593-614. doi: 10.1111/tra.12389. Epub 2016 Apr 7. Review.


Recombinant M2e outer membrane vesicle vaccines protect against lethal influenza A challenge in BALB/c mice.

Rappazzo CG, Watkins HC, Guarino CM, Chau A, Lopez JL, DeLisa MP, Leifer CA, Whittaker GR, Putnam D.

Vaccine. 2016 Mar 4;34(10):1252-8. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.01.028. Epub 2016 Jan 29.


Human transferrin receptor triggers an alternative Tacaribe virus internalization pathway.

Roldán JS, Martínez MG, Forlenza MB, Whittaker GR, Candurra NA.

Arch Virol. 2016 Feb;161(2):353-63. doi: 10.1007/s00705-015-2652-3. Epub 2015 Nov 12.


Modification of the hemagglutinin cleavage site allows indirect activation of avian influenza virus H9N2 by bacterial staphylokinase.

Tse LV, Whittaker GR.

Virology. 2015 Aug;482:1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2015.03.023. Epub 2015 Apr 1.


Host cell proteases: Critical determinants of coronavirus tropism and pathogenesis.

Millet JK, Whittaker GR.

Virus Res. 2015 Apr 16;202:120-34. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2014.11.021. Epub 2014 Nov 22. Review.


Variations in pH sensitivity, acid stability, and fusogenicity of three influenza virus H3 subtypes.

Costello DA, Whittaker GR, Daniel S.

J Virol. 2015 Jan;89(1):350-60. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01927-14. Epub 2014 Oct 15.


Host cell entry of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus after two-step, furin-mediated activation of the spike protein.

Millet JK, Whittaker GR.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Oct 21;111(42):15214-9. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1407087111. Epub 2014 Oct 6.


Genotypic characterization of canine coronaviruses associated with fatal canine neonatal enteritis in the United States.

Licitra BN, Whittaker GR, Dubovi EJ, Duhamel GE.

J Clin Microbiol. 2014 Dec;52(12):4230-8. doi: 10.1128/JCM.02158-14. Epub 2014 Sep 24.


Canine enteric coronaviruses: emerging viral pathogens with distinct recombinant spike proteins.

Licitra BN, Duhamel GE, Whittaker GR.

Viruses. 2014 Aug 22;6(8):3363-76. doi: 10.3390/v6083363. Review.


Inhibition of influenza virus infection and hemagglutinin cleavage by the protease inhibitor HAI-2.

Hamilton BS, Chung C, Cyphers SY, Rinaldi VD, Marcano VC, Whittaker GR.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014 Jul 25;450(2):1070-5. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.06.109. Epub 2014 Jun 27.


Influenza entry pathways in polarized MDCK cells.

Zhang Y, Whittaker GR.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014 Jul 18;450(1):234-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.05.095. Epub 2014 May 27.


A novel activation mechanism of avian influenza virus H9N2 by furin.

Tse LV, Hamilton AM, Friling T, Whittaker GR.

J Virol. 2014 Feb;88(3):1673-83. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02648-13. Epub 2013 Nov 20.


Utilization of human DC-SIGN and L-SIGN for entry and infection of host cells by the New World arenavirus, Junín virus.

Martinez MG, Bialecki MA, Belouzard S, Cordo SM, Candurra NA, Whittaker GR.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013 Nov 22;441(3):612-617. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.10.106. Epub 2013 Oct 29.


Single particle assay of coronavirus membrane fusion with proteinaceous receptor-embedded supported bilayers.

Costello DA, Millet JK, Hsia CY, Whittaker GR, Daniel S.

Biomaterials. 2013 Oct;34(32):7895-904. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.06.034. Epub 2013 Jul 22.


Entry of rhabdoviruses into animal cells.

Regan AD, Whittaker GR.

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013;790:167-77. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-7651-1_9. Review.


Entry of influenza virus.

Sun X, Whittaker GR.

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013;790:72-82. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-7651-1_4. Review.


Mutation in spike protein cleavage site and pathogenesis of feline coronavirus.

Licitra BN, Millet JK, Regan AD, Hamilton BS, Rinaldi VD, Duhamel GE, Whittaker GR.

Emerg Infect Dis. 2013 Jul;19(7):1066-73. doi: 10.3201/eid1907.121094.


Cleavage activation of human-adapted influenza virus subtypes by kallikrein-related peptidases 5 and 12.

Hamilton BS, Whittaker GR.

J Biol Chem. 2013 Jun 14;288(24):17399-407. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.440362. Epub 2013 Apr 23.


Plasmin-mediated activation of pandemic H1N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin is independent of the viral neuraminidase.

Tse LV, Marcano VC, Huang W, Pocwierz MS, Whittaker GR.

J Virol. 2013 May;87(9):5161-9. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00210-13. Epub 2013 Feb 28.


Acquisition of a novel eleven amino acid insertion directly N-terminal to a tetrabasic cleavage site confers intracellular cleavage of an H7N7 influenza virus hemagglutinin.

Hamilton BS, Sun X, Chung C, Whittaker GR.

Virology. 2012 Dec 5;434(1):88-95. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2012.09.004. Epub 2012 Oct 7.


Influenza virus-membrane fusion triggered by proton uncaging for single particle studies of fusion kinetics.

Costello DA, Lee DW, Drewes J, Vasquez KA, Kisler K, Wiesner U, Pollack L, Whittaker GR, Daniel S.

Anal Chem. 2012 Oct 16;84(20):8480-9. doi: 10.1021/ac3006473. Epub 2012 Oct 1.


Influenza virus-mediated membrane fusion: determinants of hemagglutinin fusogenic activity and experimental approaches for assessing virus fusion.

Hamilton BS, Whittaker GR, Daniel S.

Viruses. 2012 Jul;4(7):1144-68. doi: 10.3390/v4071144. Epub 2012 Jul 24. Review.


Mechanisms of coronavirus cell entry mediated by the viral spike protein.

Belouzard S, Millet JK, Licitra BN, Whittaker GR.

Viruses. 2012 Jun;4(6):1011-33. doi: 10.3390/v4061011. Epub 2012 Jun 20. Review.


Cleavage activation of the human-adapted influenza virus subtypes by matriptase reveals both subtype and strain specificities.

Hamilton BS, Gludish DW, Whittaker GR.

J Virol. 2012 Oct;86(19):10579-86. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00306-12. Epub 2012 Jul 18.


Characterization of a recombinant canine coronavirus with a distinct receptor-binding (S1) domain.

Regan AD, Millet JK, Tse LP, Chillag Z, Rinaldi VD, Licitra BN, Dubovi EJ, Town CD, Whittaker GR.

Virology. 2012 Sep 1;430(2):90-9. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2012.04.013. Epub 2012 May 18.


Expression of the C-type lectins DC-SIGN or L-SIGN alters host cell susceptibility for the avian coronavirus, infectious bronchitis virus.

Zhang Y, Buckles E, Whittaker GR.

Vet Microbiol. 2012 Jun 15;157(3-4):285-93. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.01.011. Epub 2012 Jan 17.


Promotion of vesicular stomatitis virus fusion by the endosome-specific phospholipid bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP).

Roth SL, Whittaker GR.

FEBS Lett. 2011 Mar 23;585(6):865-9. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2011.02.015. Epub 2011 Feb 17.


Modifications to the hemagglutinin cleavage site control the virulence of a neurotropic H1N1 influenza virus.

Sun X, Tse LV, Ferguson AD, Whittaker GR.

J Virol. 2010 Sep;84(17):8683-90. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00797-10. Epub 2010 Jun 16.


Elastase-mediated activation of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein at discrete sites within the S2 domain.

Belouzard S, Madu I, Whittaker GR.

J Biol Chem. 2010 Jul 23;285(30):22758-63. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.103275. Epub 2010 May 27.


Feline lectin activity is critical for the cellular entry of feline infectious peritonitis virus.

Regan AD, Ousterout DG, Whittaker GR.

J Virol. 2010 Aug;84(15):7917-21. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00964-10. Epub 2010 May 19.


Internalization and fusion mechanism of vesicular stomatitis virus and related rhabdoviruses.

Sun X, Roth SL, Bialecki MA, Whittaker GR.

Future Virol. 2010;5(1):85-96.


SARS-coronavirus spike S2 domain flanked by cysteine residues C822 and C833 is important for activation of membrane fusion.

Madu IG, Belouzard S, Whittaker GR.

Virology. 2009 Oct 25;393(2):265-71. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2009.07.038. Epub 2009 Aug 29.


Characterization of a highly conserved domain within the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein S2 domain with characteristics of a viral fusion peptide.

Madu IG, Roth SL, Belouzard S, Whittaker GR.

J Virol. 2009 Aug;83(15):7411-21. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00079-09. Epub 2009 May 13.


Activation of the SARS coronavirus spike protein via sequential proteolytic cleavage at two distinct sites.

Belouzard S, Chu VC, Whittaker GR.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Apr 7;106(14):5871-6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0809524106. Epub 2009 Mar 24.


Activation of p38 MAPK by feline infectious peritonitis virus regulates pro-inflammatory cytokine production in primary blood-derived feline mononuclear cells.

Regan AD, Cohen RD, Whittaker GR.

Virology. 2009 Feb 5;384(1):135-43. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2008.11.006. Epub 2008 Dec 5.

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