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J Hum Hypertens. 1997 Dec;11(12):801-6.

Diurnal blood pressure patterns in normotensive and hypertensive children and adolescents.

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Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and the Arkansas Children's Hospital, Little Rock 72202, USA.


As abnormalities in diurnal ambulatory blood pressure (BP) have been associated with hypertensive target organ damage in adults, we investigated the diurnal systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) patterns of 54 normotensive children, age 13.4 +/- 3.0 years, and 45 untreated borderline and mildly hypertensive children, age 14.4 +/- 2.6 years. Subjects wore the SpaceLabs 90207 ambulatory BP monitor for 24 h. BP was measured q 15 min from 08.00-21.00 h then q 30 min from 21.00-08.00 h. Nocturnal BP fall, the night-day ratio and cusum derived measures were calculated from time-weighted daytime and night-time SBP and DBP. The groups were compared using analysis of covariance with adjustment for age, race, gender and body mass index. The influence of age, gender and race on the diurnal BP profile was also examined. Nocturnal SBP fall was greater in hypertensive compared to normotensive subjects (17.1 +/- 6.7 vs 14.6 +/- 7.1 mm Hg; unadjusted mean +/- s.d., P = 0.022). Normotensive and hypertensive groups did not differ in nocturnal DBP fall or SBP or DBP night-day ratio. Race appeared to influence the diurnal BP pattern as black subjects had less nocturnal SBP fall (12.9 +/- 6.9 vs 17.1 +/- 6.5 mm Hg; P < 0.005) and a higher night-day SBP ratio (90.1 +/- 5.3 vs 86.7 +/- 4.6%; P < 0.005) than white subjects. In conclusion, hypertensive children and adolescents have a similar diurnal BP pattern as their normotensive counterparts, except that the entire BP profile is shifted upward with a greater absolute fall in SBP at night. Race also appears to influence the diurnal BP profile of normotensive and hypertensive children and adolescents.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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