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Correction: Two stable variants of Burkholderia pseudomallei strain MSHR5848 express broadly divergent in vitro phenotypes associated with their virulence differences.

Shea AA, Bernhards RC, Cote CK, Chase CJ, Koehler JW, Klimko CP, Ladner JT, Rozak DA, Wolcott MJ, Fetterer DP, Kern SJ, Koroleva GI, Lovett SP, Palacios GF, Toothman RG, Bozue JA, Worsham PL, Welkos SL.

PLoS One. 2019 Apr 4;14(4):e0215200. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0215200. eCollection 2019.


Disease progression in mice exposed to low-doses of aerosolized clinical isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei.

Trevino SR, Klimko CP, Reed MC, Aponte-Cuadrado MJ, Hunter M, Shoe JL, Meyer JR, Dankmeyer JL, Biryukov SS, Quirk AV, Fritts KA, Kern SJ, Fetterer DP, Kohler LJ, Toothman RG, Bozue JA, Schellhase CW, Kreiselmeier N, Daye SP, Welkos SL, Soffler C, Worsham PL, Waag DM, Amemiya K, Cote CK.

PLoS One. 2018 Nov 30;13(11):e0208277. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0208277. eCollection 2018.


A Standard Method To Inactivate Bacillus anthracis Spores to Sterility via Gamma Irradiation.

Cote CK, Buhr T, Bernhards CB, Bohmke MD, Calm AM, Esteban-Trexler JS, Hunter M, Katoski SE, Kennihan N, Klimko CP, Miller JA, Minter ZA, Pfarr JW, Prugh AM, Quirk AV, Rivers BA, Shea AA, Shoe JL, Sickler TM, Young AA, Fetterer DP, Welkos SL, Bozue JA, McPherson D, Fountain AW 3rd, Gibbons HS.

Appl Environ Microbiol. 2018 May 31;84(12). pii: e00106-18. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00106-18. Print 2018 Jun 15.


Incorporating germination-induction into decontamination strategies for bacterial spores.

Kohler LJ, Quirk AV, Welkos SL, Cote CK.

J Appl Microbiol. 2018 Jan;124(1):2-14. doi: 10.1111/jam.13600. Epub 2017 Nov 5. Review.


Characterization of pathogenesis of and immune response to Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243 using both inhalational and intraperitoneal infection models in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice.

Bearss JJ, Hunter M, Dankmeyer JL, Fritts KA, Klimko CP, Weaver CH, Shoe JL, Quirk AV, Toothman RG, Webster WM, Fetterer DP, Bozue JA, Worsham PL, Welkos SL, Amemiya K, Cote CK.

PLoS One. 2017 Feb 24;12(2):e0172627. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172627. eCollection 2017.


Comparison of sampling methods to recover germinated Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis endospores from surface coupons.

Mott TM, Shoe JL, Hunter M, Woodson AM, Fritts KA, Klimko CP, Quirk AV, Welkos SL, Cote CK.

J Appl Microbiol. 2017 May;122(5):1219-1232. doi: 10.1111/jam.13418. Epub 2017 Apr 3.


Two stable variants of Burkholderia pseudomallei strain MSHR5848 express broadly divergent in vitro phenotypes associated with their virulence differences.

Shea AA, Bernhards RC, Cote CK, Chase CJ, Koehler JW, Klimko CP, Ladner JT, Rozak DA, Wolcott MJ, Fetterer DP, Kern SJ, Koroleva GI, Lovett SP, Palacios GF, Toothman RG, Bozue JA, Worsham PL, Welkos SL.

PLoS One. 2017 Feb 10;12(2):e0171363. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0171363. eCollection 2017. Erratum in: PLoS One. 2019 Apr 4;14(4):e0215200.


Characterization of in vitro phenotypes of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei strains potentially associated with persistent infection in mice.

Bernhards RC, Cote CK, Amemiya K, Waag DM, Klimko CP, Worsham PL, Welkos SL.

Arch Microbiol. 2017 Mar;199(2):277-301. doi: 10.1007/s00203-016-1303-8. Epub 2016 Oct 13.


A Unique Set of the Burkholderia Collagen-Like Proteins Provides Insight into Pathogenesis, Genome Evolution and Niche Adaptation, and Infection Detection.

Bachert BA, Choi SJ, Snyder AK, Rio RV, Durney BC, Holland LA, Amemiya K, Welkos SL, Bozue JA, Cote CK, Berisio R, Lukomski S.

PLoS One. 2015 Sep 10;10(9):e0137578. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0137578. eCollection 2015.


Anthrax Toxins in Context of Bacillus anthracis Spores and Spore Germination.

Cote CK, Welkos SL.

Toxins (Basel). 2015 Aug 17;7(8):3167-78. doi: 10.3390/toxins7083167. Review.


Comparison of the early host immune response to two widely diverse virulent strains of Burkholderia pseudomallei that cause acute or chronic infections in BALB/c mice.

Amemiya K, Dankmeyer JL, Fetterer DP, Worsham PL, Welkos SL, Cote CK.

Microb Pathog. 2015 Sep;86:53-63. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2015.07.004. Epub 2015 Jul 7.


Characterization of Burkholderia pseudomallei Strains Using a Murine Intraperitoneal Infection Model and In Vitro Macrophage Assays.

Welkos SL, Klimko CP, Kern SJ, Bearss JJ, Bozue JA, Bernhards RC, Trevino SR, Waag DM, Amemiya K, Worsham PL, Cote CK.

PLoS One. 2015 Apr 24;10(4):e0124667. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124667. eCollection 2015.


Interrogation of the Burkholderia pseudomallei genome to address differential virulence among isolates.

Challacombe JF, Stubben CJ, Klimko CP, Welkos SL, Kern SJ, Bozue JA, Worsham PL, Cote CK, Wolfe DN.

PLoS One. 2014 Dec 23;9(12):e115951. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0115951. eCollection 2014. Erratum in: PLoS One. 2015;10(3):e0122178.


The impact of inducing germination of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis spores on potential secondary decontamination strategies.

Omotade TO, Bernhards RC, Klimko CP, Matthews ME, Hill AJ, Hunter MS, Webster WM, Bozue JA, Welkos SL, Cote CK.

J Appl Microbiol. 2014 Dec;117(6):1614-33. doi: 10.1111/jam.12644. Epub 2014 Oct 19.


D-cycloserine or similar physiochemical compounds may be uniquely suited for use in Bacillus anthracis spore decontamination strategies.

Omotade TO, Heffron JD, Klimko CP, Marchand CL, Miller LL, Halasahoris SA, Bozue JA, Welkos SL, Cote CK.

J Appl Microbiol. 2013 Dec;115(6):1343-56. doi: 10.1111/jam.12322. Epub 2013 Aug 30.


Phenotypic changes in spores and vegetative cells of Bacillus anthracis associated with BenK.

Heffron JD, Jenkins AL, Bozue JA, Kaatz LK, Cote CK, Welkos SL.

Microb Pathog. 2013 Apr;57:41-51. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2012.11.009. Epub 2012 Nov 22.


Immunization of mice with formalin-inactivated spores from avirulent Bacillus cereus strains provides significant protection from challenge with Bacillus anthracis Ames.

Vergis JM, Cote CK, Bozue J, Alem F, Ventura CL, Welkos SL, O'Brien AD.

Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013 Jan;20(1):56-65. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00550-12. Epub 2012 Oct 31.


Characterization of a multi-component anthrax vaccine designed to target the initial stages of infection as well as toxaemia.

Cote CK, Kaatz L, Reinhardt J, Bozue J, Tobery SA, Bassett AD, Sanz P, Darnell SC, Alem F, O'Brien AD, Welkos SL.

J Med Microbiol. 2012 Oct;61(Pt 10):1380-92. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.045393-0. Epub 2012 Jul 5.


Allelic variation on murine chromosome 11 modifies host inflammatory responses and resistance to Bacillus anthracis.

Terra JK, France B, Cote CK, Jenkins A, Bozue JA, Welkos SL, Bhargava R, Ho CL, Mehrabian M, Pan C, Lusis AJ, Davis RC, LeVine SM, Bradley KA.

PLoS Pathog. 2011 Dec;7(12):e1002469. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002469. Epub 2011 Dec 29.


Advanced Development of the rF1V and rBV A/B Vaccines: Progress and Challenges.

Hart MK, Saviolakis GA, Welkos SL, House RV.

Adv Prev Med. 2012;2012:731604. doi: 10.1155/2012/731604. Epub 2011 Oct 17.


Key aspects of the molecular and cellular basis of inhalational anthrax.

Cote CK, Welkos SL, Bozue J.

Microbes Infect. 2011 Dec;13(14-15):1146-55. doi: 10.1016/j.micinf.2011.07.005. Epub 2011 Jul 21. Review.


Cutting edge: resistance to Bacillus anthracis infection mediated by a lethal toxin sensitive allele of Nalp1b/Nlrp1b.

Terra JK, Cote CK, France B, Jenkins AL, Bozue JA, Welkos SL, LeVine SM, Bradley KA.

J Immunol. 2010 Jan 1;184(1):17-20. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.0903114. Epub 2009 Nov 30.


Roles of the Bacillus anthracis spore protein ExsK in exosporium maturation and germination.

Severson KM, Mallozzi M, Bozue J, Welkos SL, Cote CK, Knight KL, Driks A.

J Bacteriol. 2009 Dec;191(24):7587-96. doi: 10.1128/JB.01110-09. Epub 2009 Oct 16.


In vitro intracellular trafficking of virulence antigen during infection by Yersinia pestis.

DiMezzo TL, Ruthel G, Brueggemann EE, Hines HB, Ribot WJ, Chapman CE, Powell BS, Welkos SL.

PLoS One. 2009 Jul 17;4(7):e6281. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006281.


Effects of altering the germination potential of Bacillus anthracis spores by exogenous means in a mouse model.

Cote CK, Bozue J, Twenhafel N, Welkos SL.

J Med Microbiol. 2009 Jun;58(Pt 6):816-25. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.008656-0.


A strategy to verify the absence of the pgm locus in Yersinia pestis strain candidates for select agent exemption.

Jenkins AL, Worsham PL, Welkos SL.

J Microbiol Methods. 2009 Jun;77(3):316-9. doi: 10.1016/j.mimet.2009.02.013. Epub 2009 Mar 10.


Application of carbohydrate microarray technology for the detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei, Bacillus anthracis and Francisella tularensis antibodies.

Parthasarathy N, Saksena R, Kováč P, Deshazer D, Peacock SJ, Wuthiekanun V, Heine HS, Friedlander AM, Cote CK, Welkos SL, Adamovicz JJ, Bavari S, Waag DM.

Carbohydr Res. 2008 Nov 3;343(16):2783-8. doi: 10.1016/j.carres.2008.05.021. Epub 2008 Jun 14.


Early interactions between fully virulent Bacillus anthracis and macrophages that influence the balance between spore clearance and development of a lethal infection.

Cote CK, DiMezzo TL, Banks DJ, France B, Bradley KA, Welkos SL.

Microbes Infect. 2008 May;10(6):613-9. doi: 10.1016/j.micinf.2008.02.006. Epub 2008 Feb 21.


Analysis of a novel spore antigen in Bacillus anthracis that contributes to spore opsonization.

Cote CK, Bozue J, Moody KL, DiMezzo TL, Chapman CE, Welkos SL.

Microbiology. 2008 Feb;154(Pt 2):619-32. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.2007/008292-0.


Bacillus anthracis spores of the bclA mutant exhibit increased adherence to epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells but not to macrophages.

Bozue J, Moody KL, Cote CK, Stiles BG, Friedlander AM, Welkos SL, Hale ML.

Infect Immun. 2007 Sep;75(9):4498-505. Epub 2007 Jul 2.


Fully virulent Bacillus anthracis does not require the immunodominant protein BclA for pathogenesis.

Bozue J, Cote CK, Moody KL, Welkos SL.

Infect Immun. 2007 Jan;75(1):508-11. Epub 2006 Oct 30.


Multiagent vaccines vectored by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon elicits immune responses to Marburg virus and protection against anthrax and botulinum neurotoxin in mice.

Lee JS, Groebner JL, Hadjipanayis AG, Negley DL, Schmaljohn AL, Welkos SL, Smith LA, Smith JF.

Vaccine. 2006 Nov 17;24(47-48):6886-92. Epub 2006 Jun 21.


The detection of protective antigen (PA) associated with spores of Bacillus anthracis and the effects of anti-PA antibodies on spore germination and macrophage interactions.

Cote CK, Rossi CA, Kang AS, Morrow PR, Lee JS, Welkos SL.

Microb Pathog. 2005 May-Jun;38(5-6):209-25. Epub 2005 Apr 22.


The use of a model of in vivo macrophage depletion to study the role of macrophages during infection with Bacillus anthracis spores.

Cote CK, Rea KM, Norris SL, van Rooijen N, Welkos SL.

Microb Pathog. 2004 Oct;37(4):169-75.


Mu dI1(Ap lac) mutagenesis of Yersinia pestis plasmid pFra and identification of temperature-regulated loci associated with virulence.

Welkos SL, Andrews GP, Lindler LE, Snellings NJ, Strachan SD.

Plasmid. 2004 Jan;51(1):1-11.


Anthrax vaccines.

Friedlander AM, Welkos SL, Ivins BE.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2002;271:33-60. Review.


The capsule of bacillus anthracis, a review

Ezzell JW, Welkos SL.

J Appl Microbiol. 1999 Aug;87(2):250.


Protective efficacy of recombinant Yersinia outer proteins against bubonic plague caused by encapsulated and nonencapsulated Yersinia pestis.

Andrews GP, Strachan ST, Benner GE, Sample AK, Anderson GW Jr, Adamovicz JJ, Welkos SL, Pullen JK, Friedlander AM.

Infect Immun. 1999 Mar;67(3):1533-7.


Protection against experimental bubonic and pneumonic plague by a recombinant capsular F1-V antigen fusion protein vaccine.

Heath DG, Anderson GW Jr, Mauro JM, Welkos SL, Andrews GP, Adamovicz J, Friedlander AM.

Vaccine. 1998 Jul;16(11-12):1131-7.


Short- and long-term efficacy of single-dose subunit vaccines against Yersinia pestis in mice.

Anderson GW Jr, Heath DG, Bolt CR, Welkos SL, Friedlander AM.

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1998 Jun;58(6):793-9.


Antibiotic treatment of experimental pneumonic plague in mice.

Byrne WR, Welkos SL, Pitt ML, Davis KJ, Brueckner RP, Ezzell JW, Nelson GO, Vaccaro JR, Battersby LC, Friedlander AM.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998 Mar;42(3):675-81.


Analysis of the Yersinia pestis V protein for the presence of linear antibody epitopes.

Pullen JK, Anderson GW Jr, Welkos SL, Friedlander AM.

Infect Immun. 1998 Feb;66(2):521-7.


Studies on the role of plasminogen activator in systemic infection by virulent Yersinia pestis strain C092.

Welkos SL, Friedlander AM, Davis KJ.

Microb Pathog. 1997 Oct;23(4):211-23.


Bacterial filamentation of Yersinia pestis by beta-lactam antibiotics in experimentally infected mice.

Davis KJ, Vogel P, Fritz DL, Steele KE, Pitt ML, Welkos SL, Friedlander AM, Byrne WR.

Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1997 Aug;121(8):865-8.


Protection of mice from fatal bubonic and pneumonic plague by passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies against the F1 protein of Yersinia pestis.

Anderson GW Jr, Worsham PL, Bolt CR, Andrews GP, Welkos SL, Friedlander AM, Burans JP.

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1997 Apr;56(4):471-3.


Recombinant V antigen protects mice against pneumonic and bubonic plague caused by F1-capsule-positive and -negative strains of Yersinia pestis.

Anderson GW Jr, Leary SE, Williamson ED, Titball RW, Welkos SL, Worsham PL, Friedlander AM.

Infect Immun. 1996 Nov;64(11):4580-5.


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