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Zookeys. 2019 Apr 4;835:65-86. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.835.33231. eCollection 2019.

Re-evaluation of Zospeumschaufussi von Frauenfeld, 1862 and Z.suarezi Gittenberger, 1980, including the description of two new Iberian species using Computer Tomography (CT) (Eupulmonata, Ellobioidea, Carychiidae).

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Naturhistorisches Museum der Burgergemeinde Bern (NMBE), CH-3005 Bern, Switzerland Naturhistorisches Museum der Burgergemeinde Bern Bern Switzerland.
Departamento de Zoología y Biología Cellular Animal, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV-EHU), 48080 Bilbao, Spain Universidad del País Vasco Bilbao Spain.
Universitätsklinikum Giessen und Marburg GmbH-Standort Giessen, Center for Radiology, Dept. of Radiology, 35385 Giessen, Germany Universitätsklinikum Gießen und Marburg Gießen Germany.
Department of Experimental Radiology, Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Biomedical Research Center Seltersberg (BFS), 35392 Giessen, Germany Justus-Liebig University Gießen Gießen Germany.
Section Evertebrata varia, Zoologische Staatssammlung München (ZSM), 81247 München, Germany Zoologische Staatssammlung München München Germany.
Department of Geology, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana,1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia University of Ljubljana Ljubljana Slovenia.
Institute for Ecology, Evolution and Diversity; Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Center (BiK-F); Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung (SGN), Goethe-University (GU), 60438 Frankfurt/M., Germany Goethe-University Frankfurt am Main Germany.
Naturalis Biodiversity Center, P.O. Box 9517, NL 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands Naturalis Biodiversity Center Leiden Netherlands.


The present study aims to clarify the confused taxonomy of Z.schaufussi von Frauenfeld, 1862 and Zospeumsuarezi Gittenberger, 1980. Revision of Iberian Zospeum micro snails is severely hindered by uncertainties regarding the identity of the oldest Iberian Zospeum species, Z.schaufussi von Frauenfeld, 1862. In this paper, we clarify its taxonomic status by designating a lectotype from the original syntype series and by describing its internal and external shell morphology. Using SEM-EDX, we attempt to identify the area of the type locality cave more precisely than "a cave in Spain". The shell described and illustrated by Gittenberger (1980) as Z.schaufussi appears not to be conspecific with the lectotype shell, and is considered a separate species, Z.gittenbergeri Jochum, Prieto & De Winter, sp. n. Zospeumsuarezi was described from various caves in NW Spain. Study of the type material reveals that these shells are not homogenous in shell morphology. The holotype shell of Z.suarezi is imaged here for the first time. The paratype shell, illustrated by Gittenberger (1980) from a distant, second cave, is described as Zospeumpraetermissum Jochum, Prieto & De Winter, sp. n. The shell selected here as lectotype of Z.schaufussi, was also considered a paratype of Z.suarezi by Gittenberger (1980). Since this specimen is morphologically very similar to topotypic shells of Z.suarezi, the latter species is considered a junior synonym of Z.schaufussi (syn. n.). The internal shell morphology of all these taxa is described and illustrated using X-ray Micro Computer Tomography (Micro-CT).


Cave-dwelling species; microgastropods; shell variability; subterranean land snail

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