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Haematologica. 2019 Jun;104(6):1237-1243. doi: 10.3324/haematol.2018.211086. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Glycoprotein V is a relevant immune target in patients with immune thrombocytopenia.

Author information

1
Institute for Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany.
2
Center for Clinical Transfusion Medicine, Medical Faculty of Tübingen, Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen, Germany.
3
The Canadian Blood Services & The Keenan Research Centre of St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada.
4
Faculty for Chemistry and Biology, Fresenius University of Applied Sciences, Idstein, Germany.
5
IVth Department of Internal Medicine (Hematology/Oncology), Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany.
6
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Rochester, NY, USA.
7
Institute for Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany ulrich.sachs@med.uni-giessen.de.
8
Center for Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy and Hemostasis Center, University Hospital Giessen and Marburg, Marburg, Germany.

Abstract

Platelet autoantibody-induced platelet clearance represents a major pathomechanism in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). There is growing evidence for clinical differences between anti-glycoprotein IIb/IIIa and anti-glycoprotein Ib/IX mediated ITP. Glycoprotein V is a well characterized target antigen in Varicella-associated and drug-induced thrombocytopenia. We conducted a systematic study assessing the prevalence and functional capacity of autoantibodies against glycoprotein V. A total of 1140 patients were included. In one-third of patients, platelet-bound autoantibodies against glycoproteins Ib/IX, IIb/IIIa, or V were detected in a monoclonal antibody immobilization of platelet antigen assay; platelet-bound autoantiglycoprotein V was present in the majority of samples (222 out of 343, 64.7%). Investigation of patient sera revealed the presence of free autoantibodies against glycoprotein V in 13.5% of these patients by an indirect monoclonal antibody immobilization of platelet antigen assay, but in 39.6% by surface plasmon resonance technology. These antibodies showed significantly lower avidity (association/dissociation ratio 0.32±0.13 vs 0.73±0.14; P<0.001). High- and low-avidity antibodies induced comparable amounts of platelet uptake in a phagocytosis assay using CD14+ positively-selected human macrophages [mean phagocytic index, 6.81 (range, 4.75-9.86) vs 6.01 (range, 5.00-6.98); P=0.954]. In a NOD/SCID mouse model, IgG prepared from both types of anti-glycoprotein V autoantibodies eliminated human platelets with no detectable difference between the groups from the murine circulation [mean platelet survival at 300 minutes, 40% (range, 27-55) vs 35% (16-46); P=0.025]. Our data establish glycoprotein V as a relevant immune target in immune thrombocytopenia. We would suggest that further studies including glycoprotein V will be required before ITP treatment can be tailored according to platelet autoantibody specificity.

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