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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Mar 27;115(13):3428-3433. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1717762115. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Four millennia of Iberian biomolecular prehistory illustrate the impact of prehistoric migrations at the far end of Eurasia.

Author information

1
Department of Archaeology and History, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC 3086, Australia; c.valdiosera@latrobe.edu.au torsten.guenther@ebc.uu.se jlarfer@gmail.com mattias.jakobsson@ebc.uu.se.
2
Department of Organismal Biology, Uppsala University, 75236 Uppsala, Sweden.
3
Centro Mixto, Universidad Complutense de Madrid-Instituto de Salud Carlos III de Evolución y Comportamiento Humanos, 28029 Madrid, Spain.
4
Department of Organismal Biology, Uppsala University, 75236 Uppsala, Sweden; c.valdiosera@latrobe.edu.au torsten.guenther@ebc.uu.se jlarfer@gmail.com mattias.jakobsson@ebc.uu.se.
5
Centro de Investigación en Patrimonio Histórico, Cultural y Natural, Departamento de Historia, Geografía y Antropología, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva, Spain.
6
Laboratorio de Evolución Humana, Departamento de Historia, Geografía y Comunicación, Universidad de Burgos, 09001 Burgos, Spain.
7
Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
8
Departamento de Prehistoria y Arqueología, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain.
9
Facultad de Humanidades, Universidad Isabel I, 09003 Burgos, Spain.
10
Centro Nacional de Investigación sobre la Evolución Humana, 09002 Burgos, Spain.
11
Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social, 43007 Tarragona, Spain.
12
Departamento de Geografía, Prehistoria y Arqueología, Universidad del País Vasco, 48940 Lejona, Vizcaya, Spain.
13
Departamento de Ciencias de la Antigüedad, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain.
14
Centro Mixto, Universidad Complutense de Madrid-Instituto de Salud Carlos III de Evolución y Comportamiento Humanos, 28029 Madrid, Spain; c.valdiosera@latrobe.edu.au torsten.guenther@ebc.uu.se jlarfer@gmail.com mattias.jakobsson@ebc.uu.se.
15
Department of Archaeology and History, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC 3086, Australia.
16
Centre for Anthropological Research, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg 2006, South Africa.

Abstract

Population genomic studies of ancient human remains have shown how modern-day European population structure has been shaped by a number of prehistoric migrations. The Neolithization of Europe has been associated with large-scale migrations from Anatolia, which was followed by migrations of herders from the Pontic steppe at the onset of the Bronze Age. Southwestern Europe was one of the last parts of the continent reached by these migrations, and modern-day populations from this region show intriguing similarities to the initial Neolithic migrants. Partly due to climatic conditions that are unfavorable for DNA preservation, regional studies on the Mediterranean remain challenging. Here, we present genome-wide sequence data from 13 individuals combined with stable isotope analysis from the north and south of Iberia covering a four-millennial temporal transect (7,500-3,500 BP). Early Iberian farmers and Early Central European farmers exhibit significant genetic differences, suggesting two independent fronts of the Neolithic expansion. The first Neolithic migrants that arrived in Iberia had low levels of genetic diversity, potentially reflecting a small number of individuals; this diversity gradually increased over time from mixing with local hunter-gatherers and potential population expansion. The impact of post-Neolithic migrations on Iberia was much smaller than for the rest of the continent, showing little external influence from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age. Paleodietary reconstruction shows that these populations have a remarkable degree of dietary homogeneity across space and time, suggesting a strong reliance on terrestrial food resources despite changing culture and genetic make-up.

KEYWORDS:

Iberia; archaeogenomics; diversity; migrations; palaeodiet

PMID:
29531053
PMCID:
PMC5879675
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.1717762115
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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