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Of oncogenes and open science: an interview with Harold Varmus.

Varmus H.

Dis Model Mech. 2019 Mar 1;12(3). pii: dmm038919. doi: 10.1242/dmm.038919.


Generation of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells and SCLC-like tumors from human embryonic stem cells.

Chen HJ, Poran A, Unni AM, Huang SX, Elemento O, Snoeck HW, Varmus H.

J Exp Med. 2019 Mar 4;216(3):674-687. doi: 10.1084/jem.20181155. Epub 2019 Feb 8.


Hyperactivation of ERK by multiple mechanisms is toxic to RTK-RAS mutation-driven lung adenocarcinoma cells.

Unni AM, Harbourne B, Oh MH, Wild S, Ferrarone JR, Lockwood WW, Varmus H.

Elife. 2018 Nov 26;7. pii: e33718. doi: 10.7554/eLife.33718.


Impaired hematopoiesis and leukemia development in mice with a conditional knock-in allele of a mutant splicing factor gene U2af1.

Fei DL, Zhen T, Durham B, Ferrarone J, Zhang T, Garrett L, Yoshimi A, Abdel-Wahab O, Bradley RK, Liu P, Varmus H.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Oct 30;115(44):E10437-E10446. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1812669115. Epub 2018 Oct 15.


YES1 amplification is a mechanism of acquired resistance to EGFR inhibitors identified by transposon mutagenesis and clinical genomics.

Fan PD, Narzisi G, Jayaprakash AD, Venturini E, Robine N, Smibert P, Germer S, Yu HA, Jordan EJ, Paik PK, Janjigian YY, Chaft JE, Wang L, Jungbluth AA, Middha S, Spraggon L, Qiao H, Lovly CM, Kris MG, Riely GJ, Politi K, Varmus H, Ladanyi M.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Jun 26;115(26):E6030-E6038. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1717782115. Epub 2018 Jun 6.


Improving support for young biomedical scientists.

Alberts B, Hyman T, Pickett CL, Tilghman S, Varmus H.

Science. 2018 May 18;360(6390):716-718. doi: 10.1126/science.aar8405. No abstract available.


Insurance for broad genomic tests in oncology.

Eisenberg R, Varmus H.

Science. 2017 Dec 1;358(6367):1133-1134. doi: 10.1126/science.aao6708. No abstract available.


A Prize for Cancer Prevention.

Varmus H.

Cell. 2017 Oct 5;171(2):495. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2017.09.038. No abstract available.


A Prize for Cancer Prevention.

Varmus H.

Cell. 2017 Sep 21;171(1):14-17. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2017.08.020. Epub 2017 Sep 6. Erratum in: Cell. 2017 Oct 5;171(2):495.


How Cancer Genomics Drives Cancer Biology: Does Synthetic Lethality Explain Mutually Exclusive Oncogenic Mutations?

Varmus H, Unni AM, Lockwood WW.

Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 2016;81:247-255. doi: 10.1101/sqb.2016.81.030866. Epub 2017 Jan 25. Review.


Mutational landscape of EGFR-, MYC-, and Kras-driven genetically engineered mouse models of lung adenocarcinoma.

McFadden DG, Politi K, Bhutkar A, Chen FK, Song X, Pirun M, Santiago PM, Kim-Kiselak C, Platt JT, Lee E, Hodges E, Rosebrock AP, Bronson RT, Socci ND, Hannon GJ, Jacks T, Varmus H.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Oct 18;113(42):E6409-E6417. Epub 2016 Oct 4.


Wild-Type U2AF1 Antagonizes the Splicing Program Characteristic of U2AF1-Mutant Tumors and Is Required for Cell Survival.

Fei DL, Motowski H, Chatrikhi R, Prasad S, Yu J, Gao S, Kielkopf CL, Bradley RK, Varmus H.

PLoS Genet. 2016 Oct 24;12(10):e1006384. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1006384. eCollection 2016 Oct.


Toward a Shared Vision for Cancer Genomic Data.

Grossman RL, Heath AP, Ferretti V, Varmus HE, Lowy DR, Kibbe WA, Staudt LM.

N Engl J Med. 2016 Sep 22;375(12):1109-12. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp1607591. No abstract available.


The transformation of oncology.

Varmus H.

Science. 2016 Apr 8;352(6282):123. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf7301. No abstract available.


Varmus Returns to His Roots in Cancer Genetics.

Varmus H, Kuehn BM.

JAMA. 2015 Jul 7;314(1):13-4. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.4231. No abstract available.


Evidence that synthetic lethality underlies the mutual exclusivity of oncogenic KRAS and EGFR mutations in lung adenocarcinoma.

Unni AM, Lockwood WW, Zejnullahu K, Lee-Lin SQ, Varmus H.

Elife. 2015 Jun 5;4:e06907. doi: 10.7554/eLife.06907.


Loss of MIG6 Accelerates Initiation and Progression of Mutant Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Driven Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Maity TK, Venugopalan A, Linnoila I, Cultraro CM, Giannakou A, Nemati R, Zhang X, Webster JD, Ritt D, Ghosal S, Hoschuetzky H, Simpson RM, Biswas R, Politi K, Morrison DK, Varmus HE, Guha U.

Cancer Discov. 2015 May;5(5):534-49. doi: 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-14-0750. Epub 2015 Mar 3.


Opinion: Addressing systemic problems in the biomedical research enterprise.

Alberts B, Kirschner MW, Tilghman S, Varmus H.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Feb 17;112(7):1912-3. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1500969112. No abstract available.


A new initiative on precision medicine.

Collins FS, Varmus H.

N Engl J Med. 2015 Feb 26;372(9):793-5. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp1500523. Epub 2015 Jan 30.


ERBB3-independent activation of the PI3K pathway in EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinomas.

Song X, Fan PD, Bantikassegn A, Guha U, Threadgill DW, Varmus H, Politi K.

Cancer Res. 2015 Mar 15;75(6):1035-45. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-13-1625. Epub 2015 Jan 16.


National Cancer Institute-supported clinical trials networks.

Abrams J, Kramer B, Doroshow JH, Varmus H.

J Clin Oncol. 2015 Jan 20;33(3):293. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2014.59.5421. Epub 2014 Dec 1. No abstract available.


Rescuing US biomedical research from its systemic flaws.

Alberts B, Kirschner MW, Tilghman S, Varmus H.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Apr 22;111(16):5773-7. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1404402111. Epub 2014 Apr 14.


The Art and Politics of Science.

Varmus H.

New York: W.W. Norton & Company; 2009.


Reduced NF1 expression confers resistance to EGFR inhibition in lung cancer.

de Bruin EC, Cowell C, Warne PH, Jiang M, Saunders RE, Melnick MA, Gettinger S, Walther Z, Wurtz A, Heynen GJ, Heideman DA, Gómez-Román J, García-Castaño A, Gong Y, Ladanyi M, Varmus H, Bernards R, Smit EF, Politi K, Downward J.

Cancer Discov. 2014 May;4(5):606-19. doi: 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-13-0741. Epub 2014 Feb 17.


DOK2 inhibits EGFR-mutated lung adenocarcinoma.

Berger AH, Chen M, Morotti A, Janas JA, Niki M, Bronson RT, Taylor BS, Ladanyi M, Van Aelst L, Politi K, Varmus HE, Pandolfi PP.

PLoS One. 2013 Nov 8;8(11):e79526. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079526. eCollection 2013.


Addressing the growing international challenge of cancer: a multinational perspective.

Varmus H, Kumar HS.

Sci Transl Med. 2013 Mar 6;5(175):175cm2. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3005899.


Sensitivity of human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines to targeted inhibition of BET epigenetic signaling proteins.

Lockwood WW, Zejnullahu K, Bradner JE, Varmus H.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Nov 20;109(47):19408-13. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1216363109. Epub 2012 Nov 5.


Three decades of Wnts: a personal perspective on how a scientific field developed.

Nusse R, Varmus H.

EMBO J. 2012 Jun 13;31(12):2670-84. doi: 10.1038/emboj.2012.146. Epub 2012 May 22. Review.


A conversation with Harold Varmus. Interview by Ushma S. Neill.

Varmus H.

J Clin Invest. 2012 Apr;122(4):1134-5. No abstract available.


Science funding: Provocative questions in cancer research.

Varmus H, Harlow E.

Nature. 2012 Jan 25;481(7382):436-7. doi: 10.1038/481436a. No abstract available.


Ubiquitination, localization, and stability of an anti-apoptotic BCL2-like protein, BCL2L10/BCLb, are regulated by Ubiquilin1.

Beverly LJ, Lockwood WW, Shah PP, Erdjument-Bromage H, Varmus H.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Jan 17;109(3):E119-26. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1119167109. Epub 2012 Jan 10.


Epstein-Barr virus: an important vaccine target for cancer prevention.

Cohen JI, Fauci AS, Varmus H, Nabel GJ.

Sci Transl Med. 2011 Nov 2;3(107):107fs7. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3002878.


Receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility isoform B promotes liver metastasis in a mouse model of multistep tumorigenesis and a tail vein assay for metastasis.

Du YC, Chou CK, Klimstra DS, Varmus H.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Oct 4;108(40):16753-8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1114022108. Epub 2011 Sep 21.


Integrating cancer control into global health.

Varmus H, Trimble EL.

Sci Transl Med. 2011 Sep 21;3(101):101cm28. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3002321. Review.


Accelerating progress on non-communicable diseases.

Sacco RL, Smith SC, Holmes D, Shurin S, Brawley O, Cazap E, Glass R, Komajda M, Koroshetz W, Mayer-Davis E, Mbanya JC, Sledge G, Varmus H.

Lancet. 2013 Sep 7;382(9895):e4-5. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61477-3. Epub 2011 Sep 18. No abstract available.


Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is a target for a small molecule identified in a screen for inhibitors of the growth of lung adenocarcinoma cell lines.

Somwar R, Erdjument-Bromage H, Larsson E, Shum D, Lockwood WW, Yang G, Sander C, Ouerfelli O, Tempst PJ, Djaballah H, Varmus HE.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Sep 27;108(39):16375-80. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1113554108. Epub 2011 Sep 19.


Lung cancer signatures in plasma based on proteome profiling of mouse tumor models.

Taguchi A, Politi K, Pitteri SJ, Lockwood WW, Faça VM, Kelly-Spratt K, Wong CH, Zhang Q, Chin A, Park KS, Goodman G, Gazdar AF, Sage J, Dinulescu DM, Kucherlapati R, Depinho RA, Kemp CJ, Varmus HE, Hanash SM.

Cancer Cell. 2011 Sep 13;20(3):289-99. doi: 10.1016/j.ccr.2011.08.007.


Newsmaker interview: Harold Varmus. Piloting cancer research with a shrinking budget. Interview by Jocelyn Kaiser.

Varmus H.

Science. 2011 Jul 22;333(6041):397. doi: 10.1126/science.333.6041.397. No abstract available.


NIH cancer chief wants more with less: by Meredith Wadman.

Varmus H.

Nature. 2011 Jul 6;475(7354):18. doi: 10.1038/475018a. No abstract available.


The Interactions of Retroviruses and their Hosts.

Coffin JM, Hughes SH, Varmus HE.

In: Coffin JM, Hughes SH, Varmus HE, editors. Retroviruses. Cold Spring Harbor (NY): Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; 1997.


Subtype-specific genomic alterations define new targets for soft-tissue sarcoma therapy.

Barretina J, Taylor BS, Banerji S, Ramos AH, Lagos-Quintana M, Decarolis PL, Shah K, Socci ND, Weir BA, Ho A, Chiang DY, Reva B, Mermel CH, Getz G, Antipin Y, Beroukhim R, Major JE, Hatton C, Nicoletti R, Hanna M, Sharpe T, Fennell TJ, Cibulskis K, Onofrio RC, Saito T, Shukla N, Lau C, Nelander S, Silver SJ, Sougnez C, Viale A, Winckler W, Maki RG, Garraway LA, Lash A, Greulich H, Root DE, Sellers WR, Schwartz GK, Antonescu CR, Lander ES, Varmus HE, Ladanyi M, Sander C, Meyerson M, Singer S.

Nat Genet. 2010 Aug;42(8):715-21. doi: 10.1038/ng.619. Epub 2010 Jul 4.


Ten years on--the human genome and medicine.

Varmus H.

N Engl J Med. 2010 May 27;362(21):2028-9. doi: 10.1056/NEJMe0911933. No abstract available.


Erlotinib resistance in mouse models of epidermal growth factor receptor-induced lung adenocarcinoma.

Politi K, Fan PD, Shen R, Zakowski M, Varmus H.

Dis Model Mech. 2010 Jan-Feb;3(1-2):111-9. doi: 10.1242/dmm.003681. Epub 2009 Dec 9.


Identification and preliminary characterization of novel small molecules that inhibit growth of human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

Somwar R, Shum D, Djaballah H, Varmus H.

J Biomol Screen. 2009 Dec;14(10):1176-84. doi: 10.1177/1087057109350919.


The enlightenment returns.

Gottfried K, Varmus H.

Science. 2009 Mar 20;323(5921):1538. doi: 10.1126/science.1173563. No abstract available.


Cell-specific transduction of Prdm1-expressing lineages mediated by a receptor for avian leukosis virus subgroup B.

Asimakopoulos F, Varmus HE.

J Virol. 2009 May;83(10):4835-43. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02254-08. Epub 2009 Mar 11.


MYC-induced myeloid leukemogenesis is accelerated by all six members of the antiapoptotic BCL family.

Beverly LJ, Varmus HE.

Oncogene. 2009 Mar 5;28(9):1274-9. doi: 10.1038/onc.2008.466. Epub 2009 Jan 12.


Somatic mutations affect key pathways in lung adenocarcinoma.

Ding L, Getz G, Wheeler DA, Mardis ER, McLellan MD, Cibulskis K, Sougnez C, Greulich H, Muzny DM, Morgan MB, Fulton L, Fulton RS, Zhang Q, Wendl MC, Lawrence MS, Larson DE, Chen K, Dooling DJ, Sabo A, Hawes AC, Shen H, Jhangiani SN, Lewis LR, Hall O, Zhu Y, Mathew T, Ren Y, Yao J, Scherer SE, Clerc K, Metcalf GA, Ng B, Milosavljevic A, Gonzalez-Garay ML, Osborne JR, Meyer R, Shi X, Tang Y, Koboldt DC, Lin L, Abbott R, Miner TL, Pohl C, Fewell G, Haipek C, Schmidt H, Dunford-Shore BH, Kraja A, Crosby SD, Sawyer CS, Vickery T, Sander S, Robinson J, Winckler W, Baldwin J, Chirieac LR, Dutt A, Fennell T, Hanna M, Johnson BE, Onofrio RC, Thomas RK, Tonon G, Weir BA, Zhao X, Ziaugra L, Zody MC, Giordano T, Orringer MB, Roth JA, Spitz MR, Wistuba II, Ozenberger B, Good PJ, Chang AC, Beer DG, Watson MA, Ladanyi M, Broderick S, Yoshizawa A, Travis WD, Pao W, Province MA, Weinstock GM, Varmus HE, Gabriel SB, Lander ES, Gibbs RA, Meyerson M, Wilson RK.

Nature. 2008 Oct 23;455(7216):1069-75. doi: 10.1038/nature07423.

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