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Nature. 2019 Jun;570(7760):236-240. doi: 10.1038/s41586-019-1251-y. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

Palaeo-Eskimo genetic ancestry and the peopling of Chukotka and North America.

Author information

1
Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, Ostrava, Czech Republic. pavel.flegontov@osu.cz.
2
Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Sciences, České Budĕjovice, Czech Republic. pavel.flegontov@osu.cz.
3
A. A. Kharkevich Institute for Information Transmission Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia. pavel.flegontov@osu.cz.
4
Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, Ostrava, Czech Republic.
5
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
6
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
7
Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA.
8
Department of Anthropology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA.
9
Institute for Systems Genomics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA.
10
School of Archaeology, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
11
Soprintendenza Archeologia, Belle Arti e Paesaggio per la città metropolitana di Cagliari e le province di Oristano e Sud Sardegna, Cagliari, Italy.
12
Institutes of Energy and the Environment, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.
13
Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Sciences, České Budĕjovice, Czech Republic.
14
Department of Anthropology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
15
Department of Archaeogenetics, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany.
16
Department of Anthropology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.
17
Department of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.
18
Department of Anthropology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.
19
Department of Anthropology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK, USA.
20
Department of Anthropology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA.
21
Tanana Chiefs Conference, Fairbanks, AK, USA.
22
Francis Crick Institute, London, UK.
23
Department of Modern and Classical Languages, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA, USA.
24
Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.
25
Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.
26
Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA.
27
Center for Genetic Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.
28
Department of Anthropology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
29
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. reich@genetics.med.harvard.edu.
30
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. reich@genetics.med.harvard.edu.
31
Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA. reich@genetics.med.harvard.edu.
32
Department of Archaeogenetics, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany. schiffels@shh.mpg.de.

Abstract

Much of the American Arctic was first settled 5,000 years ago, by groups of people known as Palaeo-Eskimos. They were subsequently joined and largely displaced around 1,000 years ago by ancestors of the present-day Inuit and Yup'ik1-3. The genetic relationship between Palaeo-Eskimos and Native American, Inuit, Yup'ik and Aleut populations remains uncertain4-6. Here we present genomic data for 48 ancient individuals from Chukotka, East Siberia, the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, and the Canadian Arctic. We co-analyse these data with data from present-day Alaskan Iñupiat and West Siberian populations and published genomes. Using methods based on rare-allele and haplotype sharing, as well as established techniques4,7-9, we show that Palaeo-Eskimo-related ancestry is ubiquitous among people who speak Na-Dene and Eskimo-Aleut languages. We develop a comprehensive model for the Holocene peopling events of Chukotka and North America, and show that Na-Dene-speaking peoples, people of the Aleutian Islands, and Yup'ik and Inuit across the Arctic region all share ancestry from a single Palaeo-Eskimo-related Siberian source.

PMID:
31168094
DOI:
10.1038/s41586-019-1251-y

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