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Cancer Res. 2000 Apr 1;60(7):2025-32.

S-phase arrest and apoptosis induced in normal mammary epithelial cells by a novel retinoid.

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John D. Dingell VA Medical Center, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA.


The addition of all-trans-retinoic acid has been found to mediate a G1 cell cycle phase arrest but not apoptosis in normal mammary epithelial cells. We have now found that addition of the novel retinoid 6-[3-(1-adamantyl)]-4-hydroxyphenyl]-2-naphthalene carboxylic acid (CD437), which appears to function through a pathway independent of retinoic acid nuclear receptors, results in an S-phase arrest that is preceded by a 4-fold elevation in the levels of the cyclin-cyclin dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1. Failure to inhibit E2F-1 activation of genes through its phosphorylation by the cyclin cdk2 kinase has been shown to result in S-phase arrest and apoptosis in a number of cell types. Although exposure of the normal mammary cells to CD437 does not result in modulation of cyclin A or cdk2 levels, an increase in E2F-1 levels and a marked inhibition of cyclin A/cdk2 kinase activity are observed. Exposure to CD437 results in enhanced E2F-1 binding to its DNA consensus sequences and transcriptional activity during S phase. We hypothesize that this enhanced E2F-1 transcriptional activity results in S-phase arrest and subsequent apoptosis that has been observed in other systems.

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