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Identification of Antimalarial Inhibitors Using Late-Stage Gametocytes in a Phenotypic Live/Dead Assay.

Spicer TP, Gardiner DL, Schoenen FJ, Roy S, Griffin PR, Chase P, Scampavia L, Hodder P, Trenholme KR.

SLAS Discov. 2019 Jan;24(1):38-46. doi: 10.1177/2472555218796410. Epub 2018 Aug 24.


The development of sexual stage malaria gametocytes in a Wave Bioreactor.

Demanga CG, Eng JWL, Gardiner DL, Roth A, Butterworth A, Adams JH, Trenholme KR, Dalton JP.

Parasit Vectors. 2017 May 2;10(1):216. doi: 10.1186/s13071-017-2155-z.


Infectivity of Plasmodium falciparum in Malaria-Naive Individuals Is Related to Knob Expression and Cytoadherence of the Parasite.

Stanisic DI, Gerrard J, Fink J, Griffin PM, Liu XQ, Sundac L, Sekuloski S, Rodriguez IB, Pingnet J, Yang Y, Zhou Y, Trenholme KR, Wang CY, Hackett H, Chan JA, Langer C, Hanssen E, Hoffman SL, Beeson JG, McCarthy JS, Good MF.

Infect Immun. 2016 Aug 19;84(9):2689-96. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00414-16. Print 2016 Sep.


A Plasmodium falciparum S33 proline aminopeptidase is associated with changes in erythrocyte deformability.

da Silva FL, Dixon MW, Stack CM, Teuscher F, Taran E, Jones MK, Lovas E, Tilley L, Brown CL, Trenholme KR, Dalton JP, Gardiner DL, Skinner-Adams TS.

Exp Parasitol. 2016 Oct;169:13-21. doi: 10.1016/j.exppara.2016.06.013. Epub 2016 Jun 30.


A repeat sequence domain of the ring-exported protein-1 of Plasmodium falciparum controls export machinery architecture and virulence protein trafficking.

McHugh E, Batinovic S, Hanssen E, McMillan PJ, Kenny S, Griffin MD, Crawford S, Trenholme KR, Gardiner DL, Dixon MW, Tilley L.

Mol Microbiol. 2015 Dec;98(6):1101-14. doi: 10.1111/mmi.13201. Epub 2015 Sep 25.


Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes: playing hide and seek.

Gardiner DL, Trenholme KR.

Ann Transl Med. 2015 Mar;3(4):45. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.2305-5839.2015.01.23. No abstract available.


Inhibitors of the Plasmodium falciparum M17 Leucine Aminopeptidase.

Schoenen FJ, Whipple D, Baillargeon P, Brown CL, Chase P, Ferguson J, Fernandez-Vega V, Hodder P, Mathew R, Neuenswander B, Porubsky P, Rogers S, Skinner-Adams T, Sosa M, Spicer T, To J, Tower NA, Trenholme KR, Wang J, Weiner WS, Aubé J, Rosen H, White EL, Gardiner DL, Dalton JP.

Probe Reports from the NIH Molecular Libraries Program [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Center for Biotechnology Information (US); 2010-.
2013 Dec 12 [updated 2014 Sep 18].


Inhibitors of the Plasmodium falciparum M18 Aspartyl Aminopeptidase.

Schoenen FJ, Weiner WS, Baillargeon P, Brown CL, Chase P, Ferguson J, Fernandez-Vega V, Ghosh P, Hodder P, Krise JP, Matharu DS, Neuenswander B, Porubsky P, Rogers S, Skinner-Adams T, Sosa M, Spicer T, To J, Tower NA, Trenholme KR, Wang J, Whipple D, Aubé J, Rosen H, White EL, Dalton JP, Gardiner DL.

Probe Reports from the NIH Molecular Libraries Program [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Center for Biotechnology Information (US); 2010-.
2013 Apr 12 [updated 2014 Sep 18].


Identification of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of the Plasmodium falciparum M18 Aspartyl Aminopeptidase (PfM18AAP) of Human Malaria via High-Throughput Screening.

Spicer T, Fernandez-Vega V, Chase P, Scampavia L, To J, Dalton JP, Da Silva FL, Skinner-Adams TS, Gardiner DL, Trenholme KR, Brown CL, Ghosh P, Porubsky P, Wang JL, Whipple DA, Schoenen FJ, Hodder P.

J Biomol Screen. 2014 Aug;19(7):1107-15. doi: 10.1177/1087057114525852. Epub 2014 Mar 11.


Plasmodium gametocyte inhibition identified from a natural-product-based fragment library.

Vu H, Roullier C, Campitelli M, Trenholme KR, Gardiner DL, Andrews KT, Skinner-Adams T, Crowther GJ, Van Voorhis WC, Quinn RJ.

ACS Chem Biol. 2013 Dec 20;8(12):2654-9. doi: 10.1021/cb400582b. Epub 2013 Oct 3.


Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes: with a view to a kill.

Butterworth AS, Skinner-Adams TS, Gardiner DL, Trenholme KR.

Parasitology. 2013 Dec;140(14):1718-34. doi: 10.1017/S0031182013001236. Epub 2013 Aug 19. Review.


Experimentally induced blood-stage Plasmodium vivax infection in healthy volunteers.

McCarthy JS, Griffin PM, Sekuloski S, Bright AT, Rockett R, Looke D, Elliott S, Whiley D, Sloots T, Winzeler EA, Trenholme KR.

J Infect Dis. 2013 Nov 15;208(10):1688-94. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jit394. Epub 2013 Aug 1.


Enhanced gametocyte formation in erythrocyte progenitor cells: a site-specific adaptation by Plasmodium falciparum.

Peatey CL, Watson JA, Trenholme KR, Brown CL, Nielson L, Guenther M, Timmins N, Watson GS, Gardiner DL.

J Infect Dis. 2013 Oct 1;208(7):1170-4. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jit309. Epub 2013 Jul 11.


Temporal evaluation of commitment to sexual development in Plasmodium falciparum.

Peatey CL, Dixon MW, Gardiner DL, Trenholme KR.

Malar J. 2013 Apr 22;12:134. doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-12-134.


X-ray crystal structure and specificity of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria aminopeptidase PfM18AAP.

Sivaraman KK, Oellig CA, Huynh K, Atkinson SC, Poreba M, Perugini MA, Trenholme KR, Gardiner DL, Salvesen G, Drag M, Dalton JP, Whisstock JC, McGowan S.

J Mol Biol. 2012 Sep 28;422(4):495-507. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2012.06.006. Epub 2012 Jun 16.


The aminopeptidase inhibitor CHR-2863 is an orally bioavailable inhibitor of murine malaria.

Skinner-Adams TS, Peatey CL, Anderson K, Trenholme KR, Krige D, Brown CL, Stack C, Nsangou DM, Mathews RT, Thivierge K, Dalton JP, Gardiner DL.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 Jun;56(6):3244-9. doi: 10.1128/AAC.06245-11. Epub 2012 Mar 26.


Fingerprinting the substrate specificity of M1 and M17 aminopeptidases of human malaria, Plasmodium falciparum.

Poreba M, McGowan S, Skinner-Adams TS, Trenholme KR, Gardiner DL, Whisstock JC, To J, Salvesen GS, Dalton JP, Drag M.

PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e31938. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031938. Epub 2012 Feb 16.


Anti-malarial drugs: how effective are they against Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes?

Peatey CL, Leroy D, Gardiner DL, Trenholme KR.

Malar J. 2012 Feb 6;11:34. doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-11-34.


A high-throughput assay for the identification of drugs against late-stage Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes.

Peatey CL, Spicer TP, Hodder PS, Trenholme KR, Gardiner DL.

Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2011 Dec;180(2):127-31. doi: 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2011.09.002. Epub 2011 Sep 16.


A pilot randomised trial of induced blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum infections in healthy volunteers for testing efficacy of new antimalarial drugs.

McCarthy JS, Sekuloski S, Griffin PM, Elliott S, Douglas N, Peatey C, Rockett R, O'Rourke P, Marquart L, Hermsen C, Duparc S, Möhrle J, Trenholme KR, Humberstone AJ.

PLoS One. 2011;6(8):e21914. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021914. Epub 2011 Aug 22.


Genetic ablation of a Maurer's cleft protein prevents assembly of the Plasmodium falciparum virulence complex.

Dixon MW, Kenny S, McMillan PJ, Hanssen E, Trenholme KR, Gardiner DL, Tilley L.

Mol Microbiol. 2011 Aug;81(4):982-93. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2011.07740.x. Epub 2011 Jul 7.


An improved method for undertaking limiting dilution assays for in vitro cloning of Plasmodium falciparum parasites.

Butterworth AS, Robertson AJ, Ho MF, Gatton ML, McCarthy JS, Trenholme KR.

Malar J. 2011 Apr 18;10:95. doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-10-95.


Dual stage synthesis and crucial role of cytoadherence-linked asexual gene 9 in the surface expression of malaria parasite var proteins.

Goel S, Valiyaveettil M, Achur RN, Goyal A, Mattei D, Salanti A, Trenholme KR, Gardiner DL, Gowda DC.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Sep 21;107(38):16643-8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1002568107. Epub 2010 Sep 7.


Aminopeptidases of malaria parasites: new targets for chemotherapy.

Trenholme KR, Brown CL, Skinner-Adams TS, Stack C, Lowther J, To J, Robinson MW, Donnelly SM, Dalton JP, Gardiner DL.

Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2010 Jun;10(3):217-25. Review.


Structure of the Plasmodium falciparum M17 aminopeptidase and significance for the design of drugs targeting the neutral exopeptidases.

McGowan S, Oellig CA, Birru WA, Caradoc-Davies TT, Stack CM, Lowther J, Skinner-Adams T, Mucha A, Kafarski P, Grembecka J, Trenholme KR, Buckle AM, Gardiner DL, Dalton JP, Whisstock JC.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Feb 9;107(6):2449-54. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0911813107. Epub 2010 Jan 21.


Antimalarial asexual stage-specific and gametocytocidal activities of HIV protease inhibitors.

Peatey CL, Andrews KT, Eickel N, MacDonald T, Butterworth AS, Trenholme KR, Gardiner DL, McCarthy JS, Skinner-Adams TS.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010 Mar;54(3):1334-7. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01512-09. Epub 2009 Dec 22.


Plasmodium falciparum: new molecular targets with potential for antimalarial drug development.

Gardiner DL, Skinner-Adams TS, Brown CL, Andrews KT, Stack CM, McCarthy JS, Dalton JP, Trenholme KR.

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2009 Nov;7(9):1087-98. doi: 10.1586/eri.09.93. Review.


Effect of antimalarial drugs on Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes.

Peatey CL, Skinner-Adams TS, Dixon MW, McCarthy JS, Gardiner DL, Trenholme KR.

J Infect Dis. 2009 Nov 15;200(10):1518-21. doi: 10.1086/644645.


Plasmodium falciparum neutral aminopeptidases: new targets for anti-malarials.

Skinner-Adams TS, Stack CM, Trenholme KR, Brown CL, Grembecka J, Lowther J, Mucha A, Drag M, Kafarski P, McGowan S, Whisstock JC, Gardiner DL, Dalton JP.

Trends Biochem Sci. 2010 Jan;35(1):53-61. doi: 10.1016/j.tibs.2009.08.004. Epub 2009 Sep 30. Review.


The M17 leucine aminopeptidase of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum: importance of active site metal ions in the binding of substrates and inhibitors.

Maric S, Donnelly SM, Robinson MW, Skinner-Adams T, Trenholme KR, Gardiner DL, Dalton JP, Stack CM, Lowther J.

Biochemistry. 2009 Jun 16;48(23):5435-9. doi: 10.1021/bi9003638.


REX1 and Pf62: are they one and the same?

Gardiner DL, Woodcroft BJ, Dixon MW, Ralph SA, Trenholme KR.

Parasitol Res. 2009 Apr;104(5):967-8. doi: 10.1007/s00436-009-1382-4. Review. No abstract available.


Structural basis for the inhibition of the essential Plasmodium falciparum M1 neutral aminopeptidase.

McGowan S, Porter CJ, Lowther J, Stack CM, Golding SJ, Skinner-Adams TS, Trenholme KR, Teuscher F, Donnelly SM, Grembecka J, Mucha A, Kafarski P, Degori R, Buckle AM, Gardiner DL, Whisstock JC, Dalton JP.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Feb 24;106(8):2537-42. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0807398106. Epub 2009 Feb 5.


A green fluorescent protein-based assay for determining gametocyte production in Plasmodium falciparum.

Dixon MW, Peatey CL, Gardiner DL, Trenholme KR.

Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2009 Feb;163(2):123-6. doi: 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2008.10.004. Epub 2008 Nov 5.


Targeted mutagenesis of the ring-exported protein-1 of Plasmodium falciparum disrupts the architecture of Maurer's cleft organelles.

Hanssen E, Hawthorne P, Dixon MW, Trenholme KR, McMillan PJ, Spielmann T, Gardiner DL, Tilley L.

Mol Microbiol. 2008 Aug;69(4):938-53. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2008.06329.x. Epub 2008 Jun 28.


Targeting of the ring exported protein 1 to the Maurer's clefts is mediated by a two-phase process.

Dixon MW, Hawthorne PL, Spielmann T, Anderson KL, Trenholme KR, Gardiner DL.

Traffic. 2008 Aug;9(8):1316-26. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0854.2008.00768.x. Epub 2008 May 19.


Sex in Plasmodium: a sign of commitment.

Dixon MW, Thompson J, Gardiner DL, Trenholme KR.

Trends Parasitol. 2008 Apr;24(4):168-75. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2008 Mar 14. Review.


Identification of phosphinate dipeptide analog inhibitors directed against the Plasmodium falciparum M17 leucine aminopeptidase as lead antimalarial compounds.

Skinner-Adams TS, Lowther J, Teuscher F, Stack CM, Grembecka J, Mucha A, Kafarski P, Trenholme KR, Dalton JP, Gardiner DL.

J Med Chem. 2007 Nov 29;50(24):6024-31. Epub 2007 Oct 26.


Invasion of Rh Null Cells by Plasmodium falciparum identifies a new invasion pathway.

Chung WY, Gardiner DL, Hyland C, Trenholme KR.

Parasitol Res. 2008 Jan;102(2):259-63. Epub 2007 Oct 4.


The M18 aspartyl aminopeptidase of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

Teuscher F, Lowther J, Skinner-Adams TS, Spielmann T, Dixon MW, Stack CM, Donnelly S, Mucha A, Kafarski P, Vassiliou S, Gardiner DL, Dalton JP, Trenholme KR.

J Biol Chem. 2007 Oct 19;282(42):30817-26. Epub 2007 Aug 20.


The CLAG/RhopH1 locus on chromosome 3 of Plasmodium falciparum: two genes or two alleles of the same gene?

Chung WY, Gardiner DL, Anderson KA, Hyland CA, Kemp DJ, Trenholme KR.

Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2007 Feb;151(2):229-32. Epub 2006 Dec 1. No abstract available.


Selective permeabilization of the host cell membrane of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells with streptolysin O and equinatoxin II.

Jackson KE, Spielmann T, Hanssen E, Adisa A, Separovic F, Dixon MW, Trenholme KR, Hawthorne PL, Gardiner DL, Gilberger T, Tilley L.

Biochem J. 2007 Apr 1;403(1):167-75.


Characterization of the Plasmodium falciparum M17 leucyl aminopeptidase. A protease involved in amino acid regulation with potential for antimalarial drug development.

Stack CM, Lowther J, Cunningham E, Donnelly S, Gardiner DL, Trenholme KR, Skinner-Adams TS, Teuscher F, Grembecka J, Mucha A, Kafarski P, Lua L, Bell A, Dalton JP.

J Biol Chem. 2007 Jan 19;282(3):2069-80. Epub 2006 Nov 15.


Reliable transfection of Plasmodium falciparum using non-commercial plasmid mini preparations.

Spielmann T, Dixon MW, Hernandez-Valladares M, Hannemann M, Trenholme KR, Gardiner DL.

Int J Parasitol. 2006 Oct;36(12):1245-8. Epub 2006 Jul 28.


A cluster of ring stage-specific genes linked to a locus implicated in cytoadherence in Plasmodium falciparum codes for PEXEL-negative and PEXEL-positive proteins exported into the host cell.

Spielmann T, Hawthorne PL, Dixon MW, Hannemann M, Klotz K, Kemp DJ, Klonis N, Tilley L, Trenholme KR, Gardiner DL.

Mol Biol Cell. 2006 Aug;17(8):3613-24. Epub 2006 Jun 7.


Organization of ETRAMPs and EXP-1 at the parasite-host cell interface of malaria parasites.

Spielmann T, Gardiner DL, Beck HP, Trenholme KR, Kemp DJ.

Mol Microbiol. 2006 Feb;59(3):779-94.


Overexpression of leucyl aminopeptidase in Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Target for the antimalarial activity of bestatin.

Gardiner DL, Trenholme KR, Skinner-Adams TS, Stack CM, Dalton JP.

J Biol Chem. 2006 Jan 20;281(3):1741-5. Epub 2005 Nov 14.


Enhanced invasion of blood group A1 erythrocytes by Plasmodium falciparum.

Chung WY, Gardiner DL, Hyland C, Gatton M, Kemp DJ, Trenholme KR.

Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2005 Nov;144(1):128-30. No abstract available.


Malaria in the post-genomics era: light at the end of the tunnel or just another train?

Gardiner DL, McCarthy JS, Trenholme KR.

Postgrad Med J. 2005 Aug;81(958):505-9. Review.


Antibody reactivity to linear epitopes of Plasmodium falciparum cytoadherence-linked asexual gene 9 in asymptomatic children and adults from papua new Guinea.

Trenholme KR, Boutlis CS, Kuns R, Lagog M, Bockarie MJ, Gatton ML, Kemp DJ, Good MF, Anstey NM, Gardiner DL.

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Jun;72(6):708-13.


Implication of a Plasmodium falciparum gene in the switch between asexual reproduction and gametocytogenesis.

Gardiner DL, Dixon MW, Spielmann T, Skinner-Adams TS, Hawthorne PL, Ortega MR, Kemp DJ, Trenholme KR.

Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2005 Apr;140(2):153-60. Epub 2005 Jan 19.


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