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Variable Baseline Papio cynocephalus Endogenous Retrovirus (PcEV) Expression Is Upregulated in Acutely SIV-Infected Macaques and Correlated to STAT1 Expression in the Spleen.

Maze EA, Ham C, Kelly J, Ussher L, Almond N, Towers GJ, Berry N, Belshaw R.

Front Immunol. 2019 May 15;10:901. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.00901. eCollection 2019.


Kinetics of Early Innate Immune Activation during HIV-1 Infection of Humanized Mice.

Skelton JK, Ortega-Prieto AM, Kaye S, Jimenez-Guardeño JM, Turner J, Malim MH, Towers GJ, Dorner M.

J Virol. 2019 May 15;93(11). pii: e02123-18. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02123-18. Print 2019 Jun 1.


Identifying a nuclear passport for HIV.

Zuliani-Alvarez L, Towers GJ.

Elife. 2019 Mar 5;8. pii: e45580. doi: 10.7554/eLife.45580.


Trivalent RING Assembly on Retroviral Capsids Activates TRIM5 Ubiquitination and Innate Immune Signaling.

Fletcher AJ, Vaysburd M, Maslen S, Zeng J, Skehel JM, Towers GJ, James LC.

Cell Host Microbe. 2018 Dec 12;24(6):761-775.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2018.10.007. Epub 2018 Nov 29.


Cyclosporine H Overcomes Innate Immune Restrictions to Improve Lentiviral Transduction and Gene Editing In Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

Petrillo C, Thorne LG, Unali G, Schiroli G, Giordano AMS, Piras F, Cuccovillo I, Petit SJ, Ahsan F, Noursadeghi M, Clare S, Genovese P, Gentner B, Naldini L, Towers GJ, Kajaste-Rudnitski A.

Cell Stem Cell. 2018 Dec 6;23(6):820-832.e9. doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2018.10.008. Epub 2018 Nov 8.


KAP1 regulates endogenous retroviruses in adult human cells and contributes to innate immune control.

Tie CH, Fernandes L, Conde L, Robbez-Masson L, Sumner RP, Peacock T, Rodriguez-Plata MT, Mickute G, Gifford R, Towers GJ, Herrero J, Rowe HM.

EMBO Rep. 2018 Oct;19(10). pii: e45000. doi: 10.15252/embr.201745000. Epub 2018 Jul 30.


IP6 is an HIV pocket factor that prevents capsid collapse and promotes DNA synthesis.

Mallery DL, Márquez CL, McEwan WA, Dickson CF, Jacques DA, Anandapadamanaban M, Bichel K, Towers GJ, Saiardi A, Böcking T, James LC.

Elife. 2018 May 31;7. pii: e35335. doi: 10.7554/eLife.35335.


Virulent Poxviruses Inhibit DNA Sensing by Preventing STING Activation.

Georgana I, Sumner RP, Towers GJ, Maluquer de Motes C.

J Virol. 2018 Apr 27;92(10). pii: e02145-17. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02145-17. Print 2018 May 15.


Preventing the N-terminal processing of human interferon α-2b and its chimeric derivatives expressed in Escherichia coli.

Ahsan F, Gardner QA, Rashid N, Towers GJ, Akhtar M.

Bioorg Chem. 2018 Feb;76:294-302. doi: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2017.11.016. Epub 2017 Nov 23.


DNA damage induced by topoisomerase inhibitors activates SAMHD1 and blocks HIV-1 infection of macrophages.

Mlcochova P, Caswell SJ, Taylor IA, Towers GJ, Gupta RK.

EMBO J. 2018 Jan 4;37(1):50-62. doi: 10.15252/embj.201796880. Epub 2017 Oct 30.


Are Evolution and the Intracellular Innate Immune System Key Determinants in HIV Transmission?

Sumner RP, Thorne LG, Fink DL, Khan H, Milne RS, Towers GJ.

Front Immunol. 2017 Oct 6;8:1246. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.01246. eCollection 2017. Review.


A G1-like state allows HIV-1 to bypass SAMHD1 restriction in macrophages.

Mlcochova P, Sutherland KA, Watters SA, Bertoli C, de Bruin RA, Rehwinkel J, Neil SJ, Lenzi GM, Kim B, Khwaja A, Gage MC, Georgiou C, Chittka A, Yona S, Noursadeghi M, Towers GJ, Gupta RK.

EMBO J. 2017 Mar 1;36(5):604-616. doi: 10.15252/embj.201696025. Epub 2017 Jan 25.


HIV-1 uses dynamic capsid pores to import nucleotides and fuel encapsidated DNA synthesis.

Jacques DA, McEwan WA, Hilditch L, Price AJ, Towers GJ, James LC.

Nature. 2016 Aug 18;536(7616):349-53. Epub 2016 Aug 10.


Infection Counter: Automated Quantification of in Vitro Virus Replication by Fluorescence Microscopy.

Culley S, Towers GJ, Selwood DL, Henriques R, Grove J.

Viruses. 2016 Jul 21;8(7). pii: E201. doi: 10.3390/v8070201.


Nonhuman TRIM5 Variants Enhance Recognition of HIV-1-Infected Cells by CD8+ T Cells.

Jimenez-Moyano E, Ruiz A, Kløverpris HN, Rodriguez-Plata MT, Peña R, Blondeau C, Selwood DL, Izquierdo-Useros N, Moris A, Clotet B, Goulder P, Towers GJ, Prado JG.

J Virol. 2016 Sep 12;90(19):8552-62. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00819-16. Print 2016 Oct 1.


Selective Inhibition of the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Protects against Neurodegeneration in Experimental Multiple Sclerosis.

Warne J, Pryce G, Hill JM, Shi X, Lennerås F, Puentes F, Kip M, Hilditch L, Walker P, Simone MI, Chan AW, Towers GJ, Coker AR, Duchen MR, Szabadkai G, Baker D, Selwood DL.

J Biol Chem. 2016 Feb 26;291(9):4356-73. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M115.700385. Epub 2015 Dec 17.


TRIM5α requires Ube2W to anchor Lys63-linked ubiquitin chains and restrict reverse transcription.

Fletcher AJ, Christensen DE, Nelson C, Tan CP, Schaller T, Lehner PJ, Sundquist WI, Towers GJ.

EMBO J. 2015 Aug 4;34(15):2078-95. doi: 10.15252/embj.201490361. Epub 2015 Jun 22.


Early biodistribution and persistence of a protective live attenuated SIV vaccine elicits localised innate responses in multiple lymphoid tissues.

Ferguson D, Mattiuzzo G, Ham C, Stebbings R, Li B, Rose NJ, Mee ET, Smith D, Page M, Cranage MP, Almond N, Towers GJ, Berry NJ.

PLoS One. 2014 Aug 27;9(8):e104390. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104390. eCollection 2014.


Endoplasmic reticulum degradation-enhancing α-mannosidase-like protein 1 targets misfolded HLA-B27 dimers for endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation.

Guiliano DB, Fussell H, Lenart I, Tsao E, Nesbeth D, Fletcher AJ, Campbell EC, Yousaf N, Williams S, Santos S, Cameron A, Towers GJ, Kellam P, Hebert DN, Gould KG, Powis SJ, Antoniou AN.

Arthritis Rheumatol. 2014 Nov;66(11):2976-88. doi: 10.1002/art.38809.


Interactions between HIV-1 and the cell-autonomous innate immune system.

Towers GJ, Noursadeghi M.

Cell Host Microbe. 2014 Jul 9;16(1):10-8. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2014.06.009. Review.


Vpx complementation of 'non-macrophage tropic' R5 viruses reveals robust entry of infectious HIV-1 cores into macrophages.

Mlcochova P, Watters SA, Towers GJ, Noursadeghi M, Gupta RK.

Retrovirology. 2014 Mar 21;11:25. doi: 10.1186/1742-4690-11-25.


A model for cofactor use during HIV-1 reverse transcription and nuclear entry.

Hilditch L, Towers GJ.

Curr Opin Virol. 2014 Feb;4:32-6. doi: 10.1016/j.coviro.2013.11.003. Epub 2014 Jan 14. Review.


Gene therapy strategies to exploit TRIM derived restriction factors against HIV-1.

Chan E, Towers GJ, Qasim W.

Viruses. 2014 Jan 14;6(1):243-63. doi: 10.3390/v6010243. Review.


HIV-1 evades innate immune recognition through specific cofactor recruitment.

Rasaiyaah J, Tan CP, Fletcher AJ, Price AJ, Blondeau C, Hilditch L, Jacques DA, Selwood DL, James LC, Noursadeghi M, Towers GJ.

Nature. 2013 Nov 21;503(7476):402-405. doi: 10.1038/nature12769. Epub 2013 Nov 6.


Tetherin restricts herpes simplex virus 1 and is antagonized by glycoprotein M.

Blondeau C, Pelchen-Matthews A, Mlcochova P, Marsh M, Milne RS, Towers GJ.

J Virol. 2013 Dec;87(24):13124-33. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02250-13. Epub 2013 Sep 25.


HIV-1 capsid undergoes coupled binding and isomerization by the nuclear pore protein NUP358.

Bichel K, Price AJ, Schaller T, Towers GJ, Freund SM, James LC.

Retrovirology. 2013 Jul 31;10:81. doi: 10.1186/1742-4690-10-81.


SAMHD1-dependent retroviral control and escape in mice.

Rehwinkel J, Maelfait J, Bridgeman A, Rigby R, Hayward B, Liberatore RA, Bieniasz PD, Towers GJ, Moita LF, Crow YJ, Bonthron DT, Reis e Sousa C.

EMBO J. 2013 Sep 11;32(18):2454-62. doi: 10.1038/emboj.2013.163. Epub 2013 Jul 19.


HLA-specific intracellular epitope processing shapes an immunodominance pattern for HLA-B*57 that is distinct from HLA-B*58:01.

Kløverpris HN, Stryhn A, Harndahl M, Payne R, Towers GJ, Chen F, Riddell L, Walker BD, Ndung'u T, Leslie A, Buus S, Goulder P.

J Virol. 2013 Oct;87(19):10889-94. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01122-13. Epub 2013 Jul 17.


Inhibition of retroviral replication by members of the TRIM protein family.

Fletcher AJ, Towers GJ.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2013;371:29-66. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-37765-5_2. Review.


TRIM22 inhibits influenza A virus infection by targeting the viral nucleoprotein for degradation.

Di Pietro A, Kajaste-Rudnitski A, Oteiza A, Nicora L, Towers GJ, Mechti N, Vicenzi E.

J Virol. 2013 Apr;87(8):4523-33. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02548-12. Epub 2013 Feb 13.


Early antigen presentation of protective HIV-1 KF11Gag and KK10Gag epitopes from incoming viral particles facilitates rapid recognition of infected cells by specific CD8+ T cells.

Kløverpris HN, Payne RP, Sacha JB, Rasaiyaah JT, Chen F, Takiguchi M, Yang OO, Towers GJ, Goulder P, Prado JG.

J Virol. 2013 Mar;87(5):2628-38. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02131-12. Epub 2012 Dec 19.


CPSF6 defines a conserved capsid interface that modulates HIV-1 replication.

Price AJ, Fletcher AJ, Schaller T, Elliott T, Lee K, KewalRamani VN, Chin JW, Towers GJ, James LC.

PLoS Pathog. 2012;8(8):e1002896. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002896. Epub 2012 Aug 30.


Lentiviral gene therapy against human immunodeficiency virus type 1, using a novel human TRIM21-cyclophilin A restriction factor.

Chan E, Schaller T, Eddaoudi A, Zhan H, Tan CP, Jacobsen M, Thrasher AJ, Towers GJ, Qasim W.

Hum Gene Ther. 2012 Nov;23(11):1176-85. doi: 10.1089/hum.2012.083. Epub 2012 Sep 26.


Adherent human alveolar macrophages exhibit a transient pro-inflammatory profile that confounds responses to innate immune stimulation.

Tomlinson GS, Booth H, Petit SJ, Potton E, Towers GJ, Miller RF, Chain BM, Noursadeghi M.

PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e40348. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040348. Epub 2012 Jun 29.


Ovine TRIM5α can restrict visna/maedi virus.

Jáuregui P, Crespo H, Glaria I, Luján L, Contreras A, Rosati S, de Andrés D, Amorena B, Towers GJ, Reina R.

J Virol. 2012 Sep;86(17):9504-9. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00440-12. Epub 2012 Jun 13.


Diverse HIV viruses are targeted by a conformationally dynamic antiviral.

Caines ME, Bichel K, Price AJ, McEwan WA, Towers GJ, Willett BJ, Freund SM, James LC.

Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012 Mar 11;19(4):411-6. doi: 10.1038/nsmb.2253.


HIV-1 capsid-cyclophilin interactions determine nuclear import pathway, integration targeting and replication efficiency.

Schaller T, Ocwieja KE, Rasaiyaah J, Price AJ, Brady TL, Roth SL, Hué S, Fletcher AJ, Lee K, KewalRamani VN, Noursadeghi M, Jenner RG, James LC, Bushman FD, Towers GJ.

PLoS Pathog. 2011 Dec;7(12):e1002439. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002439. Epub 2011 Dec 8.


HIV-1 Group P is unable to antagonize human tetherin by Vpu, Env or Nef.

Sauter D, Hué S, Petit SJ, Plantier JC, Towers GJ, Kirchhoff F, Gupta RK.

Retrovirology. 2011 Dec 15;8:103. doi: 10.1186/1742-4690-8-103.


Diversity of TRIM5α and TRIMCyp sequences in cynomolgus macaques from different geographical origins.

Berry NJ, Marzetta F, Towers GJ, Rose NJ.

Immunogenetics. 2012 Apr;64(4):267-78. doi: 10.1007/s00251-011-0585-x. Epub 2011 Nov 29.


Analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 M group Vpu domains involved in antagonizing tetherin.

Petit SJ, Blondeau C, Towers GJ.

J Gen Virol. 2011 Dec;92(Pt 12):2937-48. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.035931-0. Epub 2011 Sep 7.


Phylogenetic analysis of murine leukemia virus sequences from longitudinally sampled chronic fatigue syndrome patients suggests PCR contamination rather than viral evolution.

Katzourakis A, Hué S, Kellam P, Towers GJ.

J Virol. 2011 Oct;85(20):10909-13. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00827-11. Epub 2011 Aug 17.


Feline tetherin efficiently restricts release of feline immunodeficiency virus but not spreading of infection.

Dietrich I, McMonagle EL, Petit SJ, Vijayakrishnan S, Logan N, Chan CN, Towers GJ, Hosie MJ, Willett BJ.

J Virol. 2011 Jun;85(12):5840-52. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00071-11. Epub 2011 Apr 13.


No evidence of XMRV or related retroviruses in a London HIV-1-positive patient cohort.

Gray ER, Garson JA, Breuer J, Edwards S, Kellam P, Pillay D, Towers GJ.

PLoS One. 2011 Mar 23;6(3):e18096. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018096.


No evidence of XMRV in prostate cancer cohorts in the Midwestern United States.

Sakuma T, Hué S, Squillace KA, Tonne JM, Blackburn PR, Ohmine S, Thatava T, Towers GJ, Ikeda Y.

Retrovirology. 2011 Mar 29;8:23. doi: 10.1186/1742-4690-8-23.


HIV integration targeting: a pathway involving Transportin-3 and the nuclear pore protein RanBP2.

Ocwieja KE, Brady TL, Ronen K, Huegel A, Roth SL, Schaller T, James LC, Towers GJ, Young JA, Chanda SK, König R, Malani N, Berry CC, Bushman FD.

PLoS Pathog. 2011 Mar;7(3):e1001313. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1001313. Epub 2011 Mar 10.


Impact of the N348I mutation in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase on nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance in non-subtype B HIV-1.

McCormick AL, Parry CM, Crombe A, Goodall RL, Gupta RK, Kaleebu P, Kityo C, Chirara M, Towers GJ, Pillay D.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Apr;55(4):1806-9. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01197-10. Epub 2011 Jan 31.


Disease-associated XMRV sequences are consistent with laboratory contamination.

Hué S, Gray ER, Gall A, Katzourakis A, Tan CP, Houldcroft CJ, McLaren S, Pillay D, Futreal A, Garson JA, Pybus OG, Kellam P, Towers GJ.

Retrovirology. 2010 Dec 20;7(1):111. doi: 10.1186/1742-4690-7-111.


Antibodies mediate intracellular immunity through tripartite motif-containing 21 (TRIM21).

Mallery DL, McEwan WA, Bidgood SR, Towers GJ, Johnson CM, James LC.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Nov 16;107(46):19985-90. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1014074107. Epub 2010 Nov 2.

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