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Babesiosis Vaccines: Lessons Learned, Challenges Ahead, and Future Glimpses.

Rathinasamy V, Poole WA, Bastos RG, Suarez CE, Cooke BM.

Trends Parasitol. 2019 Aug;35(8):622-635. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2019 Jul 4. Review.


Interplay between Attenuation- and Virulence-Factors of Babesia bovis and Their Contribution to the Establishment of Persistent Infections in Cattle.

Gallego-Lopez GM, Cooke BM, Suarez CE.

Pathogens. 2019 Jul 4;8(3). pii: E97. doi: 10.3390/pathogens8030097. Review.


Identification of proteins expressed by Babesia bigemina kinetes.

Bohaliga GAR, Johnson WC, Taus NS, Hussein HE, Bastos RG, Suarez CE, Scoles GA, Ueti MW.

Parasit Vectors. 2019 May 28;12(1):271. doi: 10.1186/s13071-019-3531-7.


Transgenic Babesia bovis lacking 6-Cys sexual-stage genes as the foundation for non-transmissible live vaccines against bovine babesiosis.

Alzan HF, Cooke BM, Suarez CE.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2019 Apr;10(3):722-728. doi: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2019.01.006. Epub 2019 Jan 25.


Unravelling the cellular and molecular pathogenesis of bovine babesiosis: is the sky the limit?

Suarez CE, Alzan HF, Silva MG, Rathinasamy V, Poole WA, Cooke BM.

Int J Parasitol. 2019 Feb;49(2):183-197. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2018.11.002. Epub 2019 Jan 26. Review.


Silencing expression of the Rhipicephalus microplus vitellogenin receptor gene blocks Babesia bovis transmission and interferes with oocyte maturation.

Hussein HE, Johnson WC, Taus NS, Suarez CE, Scoles GA, Ueti MW.

Parasit Vectors. 2019 Jan 5;12(1):7. doi: 10.1186/s13071-018-3270-1.


Babesia bovis RON2 contains conserved B-cell epitopes that induce an invasion-blocking humoral immune response in immunized cattle.

Hidalgo-Ruiz M, Suarez CE, Mercado-Uriostegui MA, Hernandez-Ortiz R, Ramos JA, Galindo-Velasco E, León-Ávila G, Hernández JM, Mosqueda J.

Parasit Vectors. 2018 Nov 3;11(1):575. doi: 10.1186/s13071-018-3164-2.


Up-regulated expression of spherical body protein 2 truncated copy 11 in Babesia bovis is associated with reduced cytoadhesion to vascular endothelial cells.

Gallego-Lopez GM, Lau AOT, O'Connor RM, Ueti MW, Cooke BM, Laughery JM, Graça T, Madsen-Bouterse SA, Oldiges DP, Allred DR, Suarez CE.

Int J Parasitol. 2019 Feb;49(2):127-137. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2018.05.015. Epub 2018 Oct 25.


Identification of a putative methyltransferase gene of Babesia bigemina as a novel molecular biomarker uniquely expressed in parasite tick stages.

Bohaliga GAR, Johnson WC, Taus NS, Hussein HE, Bastos RG, Suarez CE, O'Connor R, Ueti MW.

Parasit Vectors. 2018 Aug 24;11(1):480. doi: 10.1186/s13071-018-3052-9.


Assessment of Draxxin® (tulathromycin) as an inhibitor of in vitro growth of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina and Theileria equi.

Silva MG, Villarino NF, Knowles DP, Suarez CE.

Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist. 2018 Aug;8(2):265-270. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpddr.2018.04.004. Epub 2018 Apr 17.


Stable transformation of Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis using a single transfection plasmid.

Silva MG, Knowles DP, Mazuz ML, Cooke BM, Suarez CE.

Sci Rep. 2018 Apr 17;8(1):6096. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-23010-4.


Comparisons of the topographic characteristics and electrical charge distributions among Babesia-infected erythrocytes and extraerythrocytic merozoites using AFM.

Scudiero L, Mercado-Rojano WJ, Rudolph A, Wang J, Laughery JM, Suarez CE.

J Microsc. 2018 Jul;271(1):84-97. doi: 10.1111/jmi.12697. Epub 2018 Apr 2.


Spherical Body Protein 2 truncated copy 11 as a specific Babesia bovis attenuation marker.

Gallego-Lopez GM, Lau AOT, Brown WC, Johnson WC, Ueti MW, Suarez CE.

Parasit Vectors. 2018 Mar 12;11(1):169. doi: 10.1186/s13071-018-2782-z. No abstract available.


The Babesia bovis hap2 gene is not required for blood stage replication, but expressed upon in vitro sexual stage induction.

Hussein HE, Bastos RG, Schneider DA, Johnson WC, Adham FK, Davis WC, Laughery JM, Herndon DR, Alzan HF, Ueti MW, Suarez CE.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Oct 6;11(10):e0005965. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005965. eCollection 2017 Oct.


Advances in the application of genetic manipulation methods to apicomplexan parasites.

Suarez CE, Bishop RP, Alzan HF, Poole WA, Cooke BM.

Int J Parasitol. 2017 Oct;47(12):701-710. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2017.08.002. Epub 2017 Sep 8. Review.


Geno- and phenotypic characteristics of a transfected Babesia bovis 6-Cys-E knockout clonal line.

Alzan HF, Silva MG, Davis WC, Herndon DR, Schneider DA, Suarez CE.

Parasit Vectors. 2017 May 2;10(1):214. doi: 10.1186/s13071-017-2143-3.


Inhibition of the in vitro growth of Babesia bigemina, Babesia caballi and Theileria equi parasites by trifluralin analogues.

G Silva M, Knowles DP, Antunes S, Domingos A, Esteves MA, Suarez CE.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2017 Jun;8(4):593-597. doi: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2017.04.002. Epub 2017 Apr 10.


A novel modified-indirect ELISA based on spherical body protein 4 for detecting antibody during acute and long-term infections with diverse Babesia bovis strains.

Chung CJ, Suarez CE, Bandaranayaka-Mudiyanselage CL, Bandaranayaka-Mudiyanselage CB, Rzepka J, Heiniger TJ, Chung G, Lee SS, Adams E, Yun G, Waldron SJ.

Parasit Vectors. 2017 Feb 13;10(1):77. doi: 10.1186/s13071-017-2016-9.


Transfected Babesia bovis Expressing a Tick GST as a Live Vector Vaccine.

Oldiges DP, Laughery JM, Tagliari NJ, Leite Filho RV, Davis WC, da Silva Vaz I Jr, Termignoni C, Knowles DP, Suarez CE.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016 Dec 2;10(12):e0005152. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005152. eCollection 2016 Dec.


Comparative Bioinformatics Analysis of Transcription Factor Genes Indicates Conservation of Key Regulatory Domains among Babesia bovis, Babesia microti, and Theileria equi.

Alzan HF, Knowles DP, Suarez CE.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016 Nov 10;10(11):e0004983. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004983. eCollection 2016 Nov. Review.


Expression of 6-Cys Gene Superfamily Defines Babesia bovis Sexual Stage Development within Rhipicephalus microplus.

Alzan HF, Lau AO, Knowles DP, Herndon DR, Ueti MW, Scoles GA, Kappmeyer LS, Suarez CE.

PLoS One. 2016 Sep 26;11(9):e0163791. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0163791. eCollection 2016.


Expression of bovine non-classical major histocompatibility complex class I proteins in mouse P815 and human K562 cells.

Parasar P, Wilhelm A, Rutigliano HM, Thomas AJ, Teng L, Shi B, Davis WC, Suarez CE, New DD, White KL, Davies CJ.

Res Vet Sci. 2016 Aug;107:161-170. doi: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2016.06.004. Epub 2016 Jun 8.


Insulator-based dielectrophoretic diagnostic tool for babesiosis.

Adekanmbi EO, Ueti MW, Rinaldi B, Suarez CE, Srivastava SK.

Biomicrofluidics. 2016 Jun 17;10(3):033108. doi: 10.1063/1.4954196. eCollection 2016 May.


Assessment of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi infections in equine populations in Egypt by molecular, serological and hematological approaches.

Mahmoud MS, El-Ezz NT, Abdel-Shafy S, Nassar SA, El Namaky AH, Khalil WK, Knowles D, Kappmeyer L, Silva MG, Suarez CE.

Parasit Vectors. 2016 May 4;9:260. doi: 10.1186/s13071-016-1539-9.


Targeted silencing of the Aquaporin 2 gene of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus reduces tick fitness.

Hussein HE, Scoles GA, Ueti MW, Suarez CE, Adham FK, Guerrero FD, Bastos RG.

Parasit Vectors. 2015 Dec 2;8:618. doi: 10.1186/s13071-015-1226-2.


Integration of a transfected gene into the genome of Babesia bovis occurs by legitimate homologous recombination mechanisms.

Suarez CE, Johnson WC, Herndon DR, Laughery JM, Davis WC.

Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2015 Aug;202(2):23-8. doi: 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2015.09.003. Epub 2015 Sep 28.


Transfection of Babesia bovis by Double Selection with WR99210 and Blasticidin-S and Its Application for Functional Analysis of Thioredoxin Peroxidase-1.

Asada M, Yahata K, Hakimi H, Yokoyama N, Igarashi I, Kaneko O, Suarez CE, Kawazu S.

PLoS One. 2015 May 11;10(5):e0125993. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0125993. eCollection 2015.


Vaccines against bovine babesiosis: where we are now and possible roads ahead.

Florin-Christensen M, Suarez CE, Rodriguez AE, Flores DA, Schnittger L.

Parasitology. 2014 Jul 28:1-30. [Epub ahead of print]


Targeted surface expression of an exogenous antigen in stably transfected Babesia bovis.

Laughery JM, Knowles DP, Schneider DA, Bastos RG, McElwain TF, Suarez CE.

PLoS One. 2014 May 19;9(5):e97890. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097890. eCollection 2014.


The glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein repertoire of Babesia bovis and its significance for erythrocyte invasion.

Rodriguez AE, Florin-Christensen M, Flores DA, Echaide I, Suarez CE, Schnittger L.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2014 Apr;5(3):343-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2013.12.011. Epub 2014 Mar 15.


Evaluation of the growth-inhibitory effect of trifluralin analogues on in vitro cultured Babesia bovis parasites.

Silva MG, Domingos A, Esteves MA, Cruz ME, Suarez CE.

Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist. 2013 Feb 1;3:59-68. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpddr.2013.01.003. eCollection 2013 Dec.


Differential expression of three members of the multidomain adhesion CCp family in Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Theileria equi.

Bastos RG, Suarez CE, Laughery JM, Johnson WC, Ueti MW, Knowles DP.

PLoS One. 2013 Jul 3;8(7):e67765. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067765. Print 2013.


Repertoire of Theileria equi immunodominant antigens bound by equine antibody.

Silva MG, Graça T, Suarez CE, Knowles DP.

Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2013 Apr;188(2):109-15. doi: 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2013.03.002. Epub 2013 Mar 26.


Comparative genomic analysis and phylogenetic position of Theileria equi.

Kappmeyer LS, Thiagarajan M, Herndon DR, Ramsay JD, Caler E, Djikeng A, Gillespie JJ, Lau AO, Roalson EH, Silva JC, Silva MG, Suarez CE, Ueti MW, Nene VM, Mealey RH, Knowles DP, Brayton KA.

BMC Genomics. 2012 Nov 9;13:603. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-13-603.


Acute and persistent infection by a transfected Mo7 strain of Babesia bovis.

Suarez CE, Laughery JM, Schneider DA, Sondgeroth KS, McElwain TF.

Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2012 Sep;185(1):52-7. doi: 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2012.05.003. Epub 2012 Jun 2.


Expression and strain variation of the novel "small open reading frame" (smorf) multigene family in Babesia bovis.

Ferreri LM, Brayton KA, Sondgeroth KS, Lau AO, Suarez CE, McElwain TF.

Int J Parasitol. 2012 Feb;42(2):131-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2011.10.004. Epub 2011 Nov 22.


Characterization of acyl carrier protein and LytB in Babesia bovis apicoplast.

Caballero MC, Pedroni MJ, Palmer GH, Suarez CE, Davitt C, Lau AO.

Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2012 Feb;181(2):125-33. doi: 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2011.10.009. Epub 2011 Oct 25.


Emerging perspectives in the research of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis.

Suarez CE, Noh S.

Vet Parasitol. 2011 Aug 4;180(1-2):109-25. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.05.032. Epub 2011 May 27. Review.


A novel neutralization sensitive and subdominant RAP-1-related antigen (RRA) is expressed by Babesia bovis merozoites.

Suarez CE, Laughery JM, Bastos RG, Johnson WC, Norimine J, Asenzo G, Brown WC, Florin-Christensen M, Goff WL.

Parasitology. 2011 Jun;138(7):809-18. doi: 10.1017/S0031182011000321. Epub 2011 Apr 18.


Bovipain-2, the falcipain-2 ortholog, is expressed in intraerythrocytic stages of the tick-transmitted hemoparasite Babesia bovis.

Mesplet M, Echaide I, Dominguez M, Mosqueda JJ, Suarez CE, Schnittger L, Florin-Christensen M.

Parasit Vectors. 2010 Nov 23;3:113. doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-3-113.


Babesia bovis expresses Bbo-6cys-E, a member of a novel gene family that is homologous to the 6-cys family of Plasmodium.

Silva MG, Ueti MW, Norimine J, Florin-Christensen M, Bastos RG, Goff WL, Brown WC, Oliva A, Suarez CE.

Parasitol Int. 2011 Jan;60(1):13-8. doi: 10.1016/j.parint.2010.09.004. Epub 2010 Sep 25.


The novel protein BboRhop68 is expressed by intraerythrocytic stages of Babesia bovis.

Baravalle ME, Thompson C, de Echaide ST, Palacios C, Valentini B, Suárez CE, Christensen MF, Echaide I.

Parasitol Int. 2010 Dec;59(4):571-8. doi: 10.1016/j.parint.2010.07.008. Epub 2010 Aug 5.


One Health approach to identify research needs in bovine and human babesioses: workshop report.

Pérez de León AA, Strickman DA, Knowles DP, Fish D, Thacker E, de la Fuente J, Krause PJ, Wikel SK, Miller RS, Wagner GG, Almazán C, Hillman R, Messenger MT, Ugstad PO, Duhaime RA, Teel PD, Ortega-Santos A, Hewitt DG, Bowers EJ, Bent SJ, Cochran MH, McElwain TF, Scoles GA, Suarez CE, Davey R, Howell Freeman JM, Lohmeyer K, Li AY, Guerrero FD, Kammlah DM, Phillips P, Pound JM; Group for Emerging Babesioses and One Health Research and Development in the U.S.

Parasit Vectors. 2010 Apr 8;3(1):36. doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-3-36.


Babesia bovis expresses a neutralization-sensitive antigen that contains a microneme adhesive repeat (MAR) domain.

Silva MG, Ueti MW, Norimine J, Florin-Christensen M, Bastos RG, Goff WL, Brown WC, Oliva A, Suarez CE.

Parasitol Int. 2010 Jun;59(2):294-7. doi: 10.1016/j.parint.2010.03.004. Epub 2010 Mar 19.


In silico predicted conserved B-cell epitopes in the merozoite surface antigen-2 family of B. bovis are neutralization sensitive.

Dominguez M, Echaide I, Echaide ST, Mosqueda J, Cetrá B, Suarez CE, Florin-Christensen M.

Vet Parasitol. 2010 Feb 10;167(2-4):216-26. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2009.09.023. Epub 2009 Sep 20.


Development of a tandem repeat-based multilocus typing system distinguishing Babesia bovis geographic isolates.

Perez-Llaneza A, Caballero M, Baravalle E, Mesplet M, Mosqueda J, Suarez CE, Echaide I, Katzer F, Pacheco GM, Florin-Christensen M, Schnittger L.

Vet Parasitol. 2010 Feb 10;167(2-4):196-204. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2009.09.021. Epub 2009 Sep 19.


Transfection systems for Babesia bovis: a review of methods for the transient and stable expression of exogenous genes.

Suarez CE, McElwain TF.

Vet Parasitol. 2010 Feb 10;167(2-4):205-15. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2009.09.022. Epub 2009 Sep 19. Review.


First survey for Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina infection in cattle from Central and Southern regions of Portugal using serological and DNA detection methods.

Silva MG, Henriques G, Sánchez C, Marques PX, Suarez CE, Oliva A.

Vet Parasitol. 2009 Dec 3;166(1-2):66-72. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2009.07.031. Epub 2009 Jul 23.


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