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Characterization of goat prions demonstrates geographical variation of scrapie strains in Europe and reveals the composite nature of prion strains.

Nonno R, Marin-Moreno A, Carlos Espinosa J, Fast C, Van Keulen L, Spiropoulos J, Lantier I, Andreoletti O, Pirisinu L, Di Bari MA, Aguilar-Calvo P, Sklaviadis T, Papasavva-Stylianou P, Acutis PL, Acin C, Bossers A, Jacobs JG, Vaccari G, D'Agostino C, Chiappini B, Lantier F, Groschup MH, Agrimi U, Maria Torres J, Langeveld JPM.

Sci Rep. 2020 Jan 8;10(1):19. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-57005-6.


Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in goats: is PrP rapid test sensitivity affected by genotype?

Simmons MM, Thorne L, Ortiz-Pelaez A, Spiropoulos J, Georgiadou S, Papasavva-Stylianou P, Andreoletti O, Hawkins SAC, Meloni D, Cassar C.

J Vet Diagn Invest. 2020 Jan;32(1):87-93. doi: 10.1177/1040638719896327. Epub 2020 Jan 2.


Detection of live M. bovis BCG in tissues and IFN-γ responses in European badgers (Meles meles) vaccinated by oropharyngeal instillation or directly in the ileum.

Lesellier S, Boschiroli ML, Barrat J, Wanke C, Salguero FJ, Garcia-Jimenez WL, Nunez A, Godinho A, Spiropoulos J, Palmer S, Dave D, Anderson P, Boucher JM, de Cruz K, Henault S, Michelet L, Gowtage S, Williams GA, Nadian AK, Monchâtre-Leroy E, Boué F, Chambers MA, Richomme C.

BMC Vet Res. 2019 Dec 6;15(1):445. doi: 10.1186/s12917-019-2166-4.


Four types of scrapie in goats differentiated from each other and bovine spongiform encephalopathy by biochemical methods.

Langeveld JPM, Pirisinu L, Jacobs JG, Mazza M, Lantier I, Simon S, Andréoletti O, Acin C, Esposito E, Fast C, Groschup M, Goldmann W, Spiropoulos J, Sklaviadis T, Lantier F, Ekateriniadou L, Papasavva-Stylianou P, van Keulen LJM, Acutis PL, Agrimi U, Bossers A, Nonno R.

Vet Res. 2019 Nov 25;50(1):97. doi: 10.1186/s13567-019-0718-z.


Endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage of pancreatic fluid collections: The impact of evolving experience and new technologies in diagnosis and treatment over the last two decades.

Gambitta P, Maffioli A, Spiropoulos J, Armellino A, Vertemati M, Aseni P.

Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2020 Feb;19(1):68-73. doi: 10.1016/j.hbpd.2019.09.008. Epub 2019 Sep 28.


Incomplete inactivation of atypical scrapie following recommended autoclave decontamination procedures.

Spiropoulos J, Lockey R, Beck KE, Vickery C, Holder TM, Thorne L, Arnold M, Andreoletti O, Simmons MM, Terry LA.

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2019 Sep;66(5):1993-2001. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13247. Epub 2019 Jun 17.


Estimating the impact on food and edible materials of changing scrapie control measures: The scrapie control model.

Adkin A, Horigan V, Rajanayagam B, Arnold M, Konold T, Spiropoulos J, Kelly L.

Prev Vet Med. 2018 Oct 1;158:51-64. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2018.07.001. Epub 2018 Jul 6.


Galleria mellonella - a novel infection model for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.

Li Y, Spiropoulos J, Cooley W, Khara JS, Gladstone CA, Asai M, Bossé JT, Robertson BD, Newton SM, Langford PR.

Virulence. 2018;9(1):1126-1137. doi: 10.1080/21505594.2018.1491255.


Effect of Polymorphisms at Codon 146 of the Goat PRNP Gene on Susceptibility to Challenge with Classical Scrapie by Different Routes.

Papasavva-Stylianou P, Simmons MM, Ortiz-Pelaez A, Windl O, Spiropoulos J, Georgiadou S.

J Virol. 2017 Oct 27;91(22). pii: e01142-17. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01142-17. Print 2017 Nov 15.


L-BSE experimentally transmitted to sheep presents as a unique disease phenotype.

Simmons MM, Chaplin MJ, Konold T, Casalone C, Beck KE, Thorne L, Everitt S, Floyd T, Clifford D, Spiropoulos J.

Vet Res. 2016 Nov 8;47(1):112.


Virulence Characterisation of Salmonella enterica Isolates of Differing Antimicrobial Resistance Recovered from UK Livestock and Imported Meat Samples.

Card R, Vaughan K, Bagnall M, Spiropoulos J, Cooley W, Strickland T, Davies R, Anjum MF.

Front Microbiol. 2016 May 2;7:640. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00640. eCollection 2016.


Further characterisation of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy phenotypes after inoculation of cattle with two temporally separated sources of sheep scrapie from Great Britain.

Konold T, Nonno R, Spiropoulos J, Chaplin MJ, Stack MJ, Hawkins SA, Cawthraw S, Wilesmith JW, Wells GA, Agrimi U, Di Bari MA, Andréoletti O, Espinosa JC, Aguilar-Calvo P, Torres JM.

BMC Res Notes. 2015 Jul 24;8:312. doi: 10.1186/s13104-015-1260-3.


Does the Presence of Scrapie Affect the Ability of Current Statutory Discriminatory Tests To Detect the Presence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy?

Simmons MM, Chaplin MJ, Vickery CM, Simon S, Davis L, Denyer M, Lockey R, Stack MJ, O'Connor MJ, Bishop K, Gough KC, Maddison BC, Thorne L, Spiropoulos J.

J Clin Microbiol. 2015 Aug;53(8):2593-604. doi: 10.1128/JCM.00508-15. Epub 2015 Jun 3.


Incubation of ovine scrapie with environmental matrix results in biological and biochemical changes of PrP(Sc) over time.

Maddison BC, Spiropoulos J, Vickery CM, Lockey R, Owen JP, Bishop K, Baker CA, Gough KC.

Vet Res. 2015 May 1;46:46. doi: 10.1186/s13567-015-0179-y.


Ability of wild type mouse bioassay to detect bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the presence of excess scrapie.

Corda E, Thorne L, Beck KE, Lockey R, Green RB, Vickery CM, Holder TM, Terry LA, Simmons MM, Spiropoulos J.

Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2015 Apr 3;3:21. doi: 10.1186/s40478-015-0194-2.


Phenotype shift from atypical scrapie to CH1641 following experimental transmission in sheep.

Simmons MM, Moore SJ, Lockey R, Chaplin MJ, Konold T, Vickery C, Spiropoulos J.

PLoS One. 2015 Feb 24;10(2):e0117063. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0117063. eCollection 2015.


Influence of breed and genotype on the onset and distribution of infectivity and disease-associated prion protein in sheep following oral infection with the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent.

McGovern G, Martin S, Jeffrey M, Bellworthy SJ, Spiropoulos J, Green R, Lockey R, Vickery CM, Thurston L, Dexter G, Hawkins SA, González L.

J Comp Pathol. 2015 Jan;152(1):28-40. doi: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2014.09.004. Epub 2014 Nov 27.


Evidence of in utero transmission of classical scrapie in sheep.

Spiropoulos J, Hawkins SA, Simmons MM, Bellworthy SJ.

J Virol. 2014 Apr;88(8):4591-4. doi: 10.1128/JVI.03264-13. Epub 2014 Jan 22.


Assessing the susceptibility of transgenic mice overexpressing deer prion protein to bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

Vickery CM, Lockey R, Holder TM, Thorne L, Beck KE, Wilson C, Denyer M, Sheehan J, Marsh S, Webb PR, Dexter I, Norman A, Popescu E, Schneider A, Holden P, Griffiths PC, Plater JM, Dagleish MP, Martin S, Telling GC, Simmons MM, Spiropoulos J.

J Virol. 2014 Feb;88(3):1830-3. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02762-13. Epub 2013 Nov 20.


Atypical scrapie prions from sheep and lack of disease in transgenic mice overexpressing human prion protein.

Wadsworth JD, Joiner S, Linehan JM, Balkema-Buschmann A, Spiropoulos J, Simmons MM, Griffiths PC, Groschup MH, Hope J, Brandner S, Asante EA, Collinge J.

Emerg Infect Dis. 2013 Nov;19(11):1731-9. doi: 10.3201/eid1911.121341.


Disease characteristics of bovine spongiform encephalopathy following inoculation into mice via three different routes.

Vickery CM, Beck KE, Simmons MM, Hawkins SA, Spiropoulos J.

Int J Exp Pathol. 2013 Oct;94(5):320-8. doi: 10.1111/iep.12036.


Overexpression of chimaeric murine/ovine PrP (A136H154Q171) in transgenic mice facilitates transmission and differentiation of ruminant prions.

Griffiths PC, Plater JM, Chave A, Jayasena D, Tout AC, Rice PB, Vickery CM, Spiropoulos J, Stack MJ, Windl O.

J Gen Virol. 2013 Nov;94(Pt 11):2577-86. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.051581-0. Epub 2013 Jun 12.


Unsuccessful oral transmission of scrapie from British sheep to cattle.

Konold T, Spiropoulos J, Chaplin MJ, Stack MJ, Hawkins SA, Wilesmith JW, Wells GA.

Vet Rec. 2013 Aug 3;173(5):118. doi: 10.1136/vr.101286. Epub 2013 May 30. No abstract available.


Strain typing of classical scrapie by transgenic mouse bioassay using protein misfolding cyclic amplification to replace primary passage.

Beck KE, Thorne L, Lockey R, Vickery CM, Terry LA, Bujdoso R, Spiropoulos J.

PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e57851. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057851. Epub 2013 Mar 5.


The interpretation of disease phenotypes to identify TSE strains in mice: characterisation of BSE using PrPSc distribution patterns in the brain.

Corda E, Beck KE, Sallis RE, Vickery CM, Denyer M, Webb PR, Bellworthy SJ, Spencer YI, Simmons MM, Spiropoulos J.

Vet Res. 2012 Dec 17;43:86. doi: 10.1186/1297-9716-43-86.


The interpretation of disease phenotypes to identify TSE strains following murine bioassay: characterisation of classical scrapie.

Beck KE, Vickery CM, Lockey R, Holder T, Thorne L, Terry LA, Denyer M, Webb P, Simmons MM, Spiropoulos J.

Vet Res. 2012 Nov 1;43:77. doi: 10.1186/1297-9716-43-77.


Infectious titres of sheep scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy agents cannot be accurately predicted from quantitative laboratory test results.

González L, Thorne L, Jeffrey M, Martin S, Spiropoulos J, Beck KE, Lockey RW, Vickery CM, Holder T, Terry L.

J Gen Virol. 2012 Nov;93(Pt 11):2518-27. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.045849-0. Epub 2012 Aug 22.


Evidence for co-infection of ovine prion strains in classical scrapie isolates.

Thackray AM, Lockey R, Beck KE, Spiropoulos J, Bujdoso R.

J Comp Pathol. 2012 Aug-Oct;147(2-3):316-29. doi: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2012.01.009. Epub 2012 Apr 21.


Prion-induced toxicity in PrP transgenic Drosophila.

Thackray AM, Muhammad F, Zhang C, Denyer M, Spiropoulos J, Crowther DC, Bujdoso R.

Exp Mol Pathol. 2012 Apr;92(2):194-201. doi: 10.1016/j.yexmp.2012.01.005. Epub 2012 Jan 31.


Selection of distinct strain phenotypes in mice infected by ovine natural scrapie isolates similar to CH1641 experimental scrapie.

Vulin J, Beck KE, Bencsik A, Lakhdar L, Spiropoulos J, Baron T.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2012 Feb;71(2):140-7. doi: 10.1097/NEN.0b013e3182439519.


Isolation of prion with BSE properties from farmed goat.

Spiropoulos J, Lockey R, Sallis RE, Terry LA, Thorne L, Holder TM, Beck KE, Simmons MM.

Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 Dec;17(12):2253-61. doi: 10.3201/eid1712.110333.


Propagation of ovine prions from "poor" transmitter scrapie isolates in ovine PrP transgenic mice.

Thackray AM, Hopkins L, Lockey R, Spiropoulos J, Bujdoso R.

Exp Mol Pathol. 2012 Feb;92(1):167-74. doi: 10.1016/j.yexmp.2011.11.004. Epub 2011 Nov 19.


The oral secretion of infectious scrapie prions occurs in preclinical sheep with a range of PRNP genotypes.

Gough KC, Baker CA, Rees HC, Terry LA, Spiropoulos J, Thorne L, Maddison BC.

J Virol. 2012 Jan;86(1):566-71. doi: 10.1128/JVI.05579-11. Epub 2011 Oct 19.


Use of murine bioassay to resolve ovine transmissible spongiform encephalopathy cases showing a bovine spongiform encephalopathy molecular profile.

Beck KE, Sallis RE, Lockey R, Vickery CM, Béringue V, Laude H, Holder TM, Thorne L, Terry LA, Tout AC, Jayasena D, Griffiths PC, Cawthraw S, Ellis R, Balkema-Buschmann A, Groschup MH, Simmons MM, Spiropoulos J.

Brain Pathol. 2012 May;22(3):265-79. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3639.2011.00526.x. Epub 2011 Oct 13.


Paraffin-embedded tissue blot as a sensitive method for discrimination between classical scrapie and experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep.

Webb PR, Denyer M, Gough J, Spiropoulos J, Simmons MM, Spencer YI.

J Vet Diagn Invest. 2011 May;23(3):492-8. doi: 10.1177/1040638711403399.


Experimental oral transmission of atypical scrapie to sheep.

Simmons MM, Moore SJ, Konold T, Thurston L, Terry LA, Thorne L, Lockey R, Vickery C, Hawkins SA, Chaplin MJ, Spiropoulos J.

Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 May;17(5):848-54. doi: 10.3201/eid1705.101654.


Experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy: detection of PrP(Sc) in the small intestine relative to exposure dose and age.

Stack MJ, Moore SJ, Vidal-Diez A, Arnold ME, Jones EM, Spencer YI, Webb P, Spiropoulos J, Powell L, Bellerby P, Thurston L, Cooper J, Chaplin MJ, Davis LA, Everitt S, Focosi-Snyman R, Hawkins SA, Simmons MM, Wells GA.

J Comp Pathol. 2011 Aug-Oct;145(2-3):289-301. doi: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2011.01.010. Epub 2011 Mar 8.


Transmission of classical scrapie to wild-type mice: the influence of the ovine PrP sequence on lesion profiles.

Beck KE, Cawthraw S, Saunders GC, Ellis R, Spiropoulos J.

Arch Virol. 2011 May;156(5):903-6. doi: 10.1007/s00705-011-0922-2. Epub 2011 Feb 4.


Emergence of multiple prion strains from single isolates of ovine scrapie.

Thackray AM, Hopkins L, Lockey R, Spiropoulos J, Bujdoso R.

J Gen Virol. 2011 Jun;92(Pt 6):1482-91. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.028886-0. Epub 2011 Jan 26.


Experimental classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy: definition and progression of neural PrP immunolabeling in relation to diagnosis and disease controls.

Simmons MM, Spiropoulos J, Webb PR, Spencer YI, Czub S, Mueller R, Davis A, Arnold ME, Marsh S, Hawkins SA, Cooper JA, Konold T, Wells GA.

Vet Pathol. 2011 Sep;48(5):948-63. doi: 10.1177/0300985810387072. Epub 2010 Nov 15.


Ovine PrP genotype is linked with lesion profile and immunohistochemistry patterns after primary transmission of classical scrapie to wild-type mice.

Beck KE, Sallis RE, Lockey R, Simmons MM, Spiropoulos J.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2010 May;69(5):483-97. doi: 10.1097/NEN.0b013e3181db2497.


Characterization of atypical scrapie cases from Great Britain in transgenic ovine PrP mice.

Griffiths PC, Spiropoulos J, Lockey R, Tout AC, Jayasena D, Plater JM, Chave A, Green RB, Simonini S, Thorne L, Dexter I, Balkema-Buschmann A, Groschup MH, Béringue V, Le Dur A, Laude H, Hope J.

J Gen Virol. 2010 Aug;91(Pt 8):2132-2138. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.018986-0. Epub 2010 Apr 14.


Transmissibility studies of vacuolar changes in the rostral colliculus of pigs.

Konold T, Spiropoulos J, Chaplin MJ, Thorne L, Spencer YI, Wells GA, Hawkins SA.

BMC Vet Res. 2009 Sep 18;5:35. doi: 10.1186/1746-6148-5-35.


Lesion profiling at primary isolation in RIII mice is insufficient in distinguishing BSE from classical scrapie.

Beck KE, Chaplin M, Stack M, Sallis RE, Simonini S, Lockey R, Spiropoulos J.

Brain Pathol. 2010 Mar;20(2):313-22. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3639.2009.00273.x. Epub 2009 Feb 26.


Neuroanatomical distribution of abnormal prion protein in naturally occurring atypical scrapie cases in Great Britain.

Moore SJ, Simmons M, Chaplin M, Spiropoulos J.

Acta Neuropathol. 2008 Nov;116(5):547-59. doi: 10.1007/s00401-008-0433-8. Epub 2008 Sep 17.


Molecular and transmission characteristics of primary-passaged ovine scrapie isolates in conventional and ovine PrP transgenic mice.

Thackray AM, Hopkins L, Spiropoulos J, Bujdoso R.

J Virol. 2008 Nov;82(22):11197-207. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01454-08. Epub 2008 Sep 3.


Over-the-catheter precut to gain access to the biliary duct during ERCP rendezvous.

Manes G, Baratti C, Ardizzone S, Ferla F, Spiropoulos J, Corsi F, Foschi D, Trabucchi E, Bianchi Porro G.

Surg Endosc. 2008 Oct;22(10):2323-5. doi: 10.1007/s00464-008-0038-2. Epub 2008 Jul 12.


Approaches to investigating transmission of spongiform encephalopathies in domestic animals using BSE as an example.

Simmons MM, Spiropoulos J, Hawkins SA, Bellworthy SJ, Tongue SC.

Vet Res. 2008 Jul-Aug;39(4):34. doi: 10.1051/vetres:2008011. Epub 2008 Feb 15. Review.


Estimating the temporal relationship between PrPSc detection and incubation period in experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy of cattle.

Arnold ME, Ryan JB, Konold T, Simmons MM, Spencer YI, Wear A, Chaplin M, Stack M, Czub S, Mueller R, Webb PR, Davis A, Spiropoulos J, Holdaway J, Hawkins SA, Austin AR, Wells GA.

J Gen Virol. 2007 Nov;88(Pt 11):3198-208.


Experimental transmission of atypical scrapie to sheep.

Simmons MM, Konold T, Simmons HA, Spencer YI, Lockey R, Spiropoulos J, Everitt S, Clifford D.

BMC Vet Res. 2007 Aug 28;3:20.

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