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Determination of an Interaction Network between an Extracellular Bacterial Pathogen and the Human Host.

Griesenauer B, Tran TM, Fortney KR, Janowicz DM, Johnson P, Gao H, Barnes S, Wilson LS, Liu Y, Spinola SM.

mBio. 2019 Jun 18;10(3). pii: e01193-19. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01193-19.


First-generation structure-activity relationship studies of 2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazol-1-amines as CpxA phosphatase inhibitors.

Li Y, Gardner JJ, Fortney KR, Leus IV, Bonifay V, Zgurskaya HI, Pletnev AA, Zhang S, Zhang ZY, Gribble GW, Spinola SM, Duerfeldt AS.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2019 Jul 15;29(14):1836-1841. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2019.05.003. Epub 2019 May 6.


A Class I Haemophilus ducreyi Strain Containing a Class II hgbA Allele Is Partially Attenuated in Humans: Implications for HgbA Vaccine Efficacy Trials.

Leduc I, Fortney KR, Janowicz DM, Zwickl B, Ellinger S, Katz BP, Lin H, Dong Q, Spinola SM.

Infect Immun. 2019 Jun 20;87(7). pii: e00112-19. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00112-19. Print 2019 Jul.


Multiple Class I and Class II Haemophilus ducreyi Strains Cause Cutaneous Ulcers in Children on an Endemic Island.

Grant JC, González-Beiras C, Amick KM, Fortney KR, Gangaiah D, Humphreys TL, Mitjà O, Abecasis A, Spinola SM.

Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Nov 13;67(11):1768-1774. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciy343.


Evaluation of CpxRA as a Therapeutic Target for Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Infections.

Dbeibo L, van Rensburg JJ, Smith SN, Fortney KR, Gangaiah D, Gao H, Marzoa J, Liu Y, Mobley HLT, Spinola SM.

Infect Immun. 2018 Feb 20;86(3). pii: e00798-17. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00798-17. Print 2018 Mar.


Both MisR (CpxR) and MisS (CpxA) Are Required for Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infection in a Murine Model of Lower Genital Tract Infection.

Gangaiah D, Raterman EL, Wu H, Fortney KR, Gao H, Liu Y, Jerse AE, Spinola SM.

Infect Immun. 2017 Aug 18;85(9). pii: e00307-17. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00307-17. Print 2017 Sep.


Haemophilus ducreyi DNA is detectable on the skin of asymptomatic children, flies and fomites in villages of Papua New Guinea.

Houinei W, Godornes C, Kapa A, Knauf S, Mooring EQ, González-Beiras C, Watup R, Paru R, Advent P, Bieb S, Sanz S, Bassat Q, Spinola SM, Lukehart SA, Mitjà O.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 May 10;11(5):e0004958. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004958. eCollection 2017 May.


Haemophilus ducreyi Cutaneous Ulcer Strains Diverged from Both Class I and Class II Genital Ulcer Strains: Implications for Epidemiological Studies.

Gangaiah D, Spinola SM.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016 Dec 27;10(12):e0005259. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005259. eCollection 2016 Dec.


Host Polymorphisms in TLR9 and IL10 Are Associated With the Outcomes of Experimental Haemophilus ducreyi Infection in Human Volunteers.

Singer M, Li W, Morré SA, Ouburg S, Spinola SM.

J Infect Dis. 2016 Aug 1;214(3):489-95. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiw164. Epub 2016 Apr 27.


Haemophilus ducreyi Seeks Alternative Carbon Sources and Adapts to Nutrient Stress and Anaerobiosis during Experimental Infection of Human Volunteers.

Gangaiah D, Zhang X, Baker B, Fortney KR, Gao H, Holley CL, Munson RS Jr, Liu Y, Spinola SM.

Infect Immun. 2016 Apr 22;84(5):1514-1525. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00048-16. Print 2016 May.


Draft Whole-Genome Sequence of Haemophilus ducreyi Strain AUSPNG1, Isolated from a Cutaneous Ulcer of a Child from Papua New Guinea.

Gangaiah D, Marinov GK, Roberts SA, Robson J, Spinola SM.

Genome Announc. 2016 Feb 4;4(1). pii: e01661-15. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.01661-15.


The Human Skin Microbiome Associates with the Outcome of and Is Influenced by Bacterial Infection.

van Rensburg JJ, Lin H, Gao X, Toh E, Fortney KR, Ellinger S, Zwickl B, Janowicz DM, Katz BP, Nelson DE, Dong Q, Spinola SM.

mBio. 2015 Sep 15;6(5):e01315-15. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01315-15.


Haemophilus ducreyi Cutaneous Ulcer Strains Are Nearly Identical to Class I Genital Ulcer Strains.

Gangaiah D, Webb KM, Humphreys TL, Fortney KR, Toh E, Tai A, Katz SS, Pillay A, Chen CY, Roberts SA, Munson RS Jr, Spinola SM.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015 Jul 6;9(7):e0003918. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003918. eCollection 2015.


DksA and (p)ppGpp have unique and overlapping contributions to Haemophilus ducreyi pathogenesis in humans.

Holley CL, Zhang X, Fortney KR, Ellinger S, Johnson P, Baker B, Liu Y, Janowicz DM, Katz BP, Munson RS Jr, Spinola SM.

Infect Immun. 2015 Aug;83(8):3281-92. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00692-15. Epub 2015 Jun 8.


Phosphoethanolamine Transferase LptA in Haemophilus ducreyi Modifies Lipid A and Contributes to Human Defensin Resistance In Vitro.

Trombley MP, Post DM, Rinker SD, Reinders LM, Fortney KR, Zwickl BW, Janowicz DM, Baye FM, Katz BP, Spinola SM, Bauer ME.

PLoS One. 2015 Apr 22;10(4):e0124373. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124373. eCollection 2015.


Development and validation of a high-throughput cell-based screen to identify activators of a bacterial two-component signal transduction system.

van Rensburg JJ, Fortney KR, Chen L, Krieger AJ, Lima BP, Wolfe AJ, Katz BP, Zhang ZY, Spinola SM.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Jul;59(7):3789-99. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00236-15. Epub 2015 Apr 13.


Haemophilus ducreyi RpoE and CpxRA appear to play distinct yet complementary roles in regulation of envelope-related functions.

Gangaiah D, Zhang X, Baker B, Fortney KR, Liu Y, Munson RS Jr, Spinola SM.

J Bacteriol. 2014 Dec;196(23):4012-25. doi: 10.1128/JB.02034-14. Epub 2014 Sep 8.


Haemophilus ducreyi as a cause of skin ulcers.

Spinola SM.

Lancet Glob Health. 2014 Jul;2(7):e387. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(14)70250-5. Epub 2014 Jun 25. No abstract available.


A (p)ppGpp-null mutant of Haemophilus ducreyi is partially attenuated in humans due to multiple conflicting phenotypes.

Holley C, Gangaiah D, Li W, Fortney KR, Janowicz DM, Ellinger S, Zwickl B, Katz BP, Spinola SM.

Infect Immun. 2014 Aug;82(8):3492-502. doi: 10.1128/IAI.01994-14. Epub 2014 Jun 9.


Correcting imbalanced reads coverage in bacterial transcriptome sequencing with extreme deep coverage.

Zhang X, Gangaiah D, Munson RS Jr, Spinola SM, Liu Y.

Int J Comput Biol Drug Des. 2014;7(2-3):195-213. doi: 10.1504/IJCBDD.2014.061646. Epub 2014 May 28.


Haemophilus ducreyi Hfq contributes to virulence gene regulation as cells enter stationary phase.

Gangaiah D, Labandeira-Rey M, Zhang X, Fortney KR, Ellinger S, Zwickl B, Baker B, Liu Y, Janowicz DM, Katz BP, Brautigam CA, Munson RS Jr, Hansen EJ, Spinola SM.

mBio. 2014 Feb 11;5(1):e01081-13. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01081-13.


The Haemophilus ducreyi Fis protein is involved in controlling expression of the lspB-lspA2 operon and other virulence factors.

Labandeira-Rey M, Dodd DA, Brautigam CA, Fortney KR, Spinola SM, Hansen EJ.

Infect Immun. 2013 Nov;81(11):4160-70. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00714-13. Epub 2013 Aug 26.


Haemophilus ducreyi infection induces activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in nonpolarized but not in polarized human macrophages.

Li W, Katz BP, Bauer ME, Spinola SM.

Infect Immun. 2013 Aug;81(8):2997-3008. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00354-13. Epub 2013 Jun 10.


Activation of CpxRA in Haemophilus ducreyi primarily inhibits the expression of its targets, including major virulence determinants.

Gangaiah D, Zhang X, Fortney KR, Baker B, Liu Y, Munson RS Jr, Spinola SM.

J Bacteriol. 2013 Aug;195(15):3486-502. doi: 10.1128/JB.00372-13. Epub 2013 May 31.


Carbon storage regulator A contributes to the virulence of Haemophilus ducreyi in humans by multiple mechanisms.

Gangaiah D, Li W, Fortney KR, Janowicz DM, Ellinger S, Zwickl B, Katz BP, Spinola SM.

Infect Immun. 2013 Feb;81(2):608-17. doi: 10.1128/IAI.01239-12. Epub 2012 Dec 10.


Haemophilus ducreyi-induced interleukin-10 promotes a mixed M1 and M2 activation program in human macrophages.

Li W, Katz BP, Spinola SM.

Infect Immun. 2012 Dec;80(12):4426-34. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00912-12. Epub 2012 Oct 1.


Permeases of the sap transporter are required for cathelicidin resistance and virulence of Haemophilus ducreyi in humans.

Rinker SD, Gu X, Fortney KR, Zwickl BW, Katz BP, Janowicz DM, Spinola SM, Bauer ME.

J Infect Dis. 2012 Nov;206(9):1407-14. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jis525. Epub 2012 Aug 28.


Sialylation of lipooligosaccharides is dispensable for the virulence of Haemophilus ducreyi in humans.

Spinola SM, Li W, Fortney KR, Janowicz DM, Zwickl B, Katz BP, Munson RS Jr.

Infect Immun. 2012 Feb;80(2):679-87. doi: 10.1128/IAI.05826-11. Epub 2011 Dec 5.


A Haemophilus ducreyi CpxR deletion mutant is virulent in human volunteers.

Labandeira-Rey M, Dodd D, Fortney KR, Zwickl B, Katz BP, Janowicz DM, Spinola SM, Hansen EJ.

J Infect Dis. 2011 Jun 15;203(12):1859-65. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jir190.


Activation of the CpxRA system by deletion of cpxA impairs the ability of Haemophilus ducreyi to infect humans.

Spinola SM, Fortney KR, Baker B, Janowicz DM, Zwickl B, Katz BP, Blick RJ, Munson RS Jr.

Infect Immun. 2010 Sep;78(9):3898-904. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00432-10. Epub 2010 Jul 6.


Role played by CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T Cells in suppression of host responses to Haemophilus ducreyi during experimental infection of human volunteers.

Li W, Tenner-Racz K, Racz P, Janowicz DM, Fortney KR, Katz BP, Spinola SM.

J Infect Dis. 2010 Jun 15;201(12):1839-48. doi: 10.1086/652781.


Haemophilus ducreyi SapA contributes to cathelicidin resistance and virulence in humans.

Mount KL, Townsend CA, Rinker SD, Gu X, Fortney KR, Zwickl BW, Janowicz DM, Spinola SM, Katz BP, Bauer ME.

Infect Immun. 2010 Mar;78(3):1176-84. doi: 10.1128/IAI.01014-09. Epub 2010 Jan 19.


Mechanism of human natural killer cell activation by Haemophilus ducreyi.

Li W, Janowicz DM, Fortney KR, Katz BP, Spinola SM.

J Infect Dis. 2009 Aug 15;200(4):590-8. doi: 10.1086/600123.


Inactivation of the Haemophilus ducreyi luxS gene affects the virulence of this pathogen in human subjects.

Labandeira-Rey M, Janowicz DM, Blick RJ, Fortney KR, Zwickl B, Katz BP, Spinola SM, Hansen EJ.

J Infect Dis. 2009 Aug 1;200(3):409-16. doi: 10.1086/600142.


Fatality despite appropriate treatment for babesiosis.

Gubernot DM, Wise RP, Spinola SM.

Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Jul 1;49(1):166-7. doi: 10.1086/599621. No abstract available.


Experimental infection of human volunteers with Haemophilus ducreyi: fifteen years of clinical data and experience.

Janowicz DM, Ofner S, Katz BP, Spinola SM.

J Infect Dis. 2009 Jun 1;199(11):1671-9. doi: 10.1086/598966.


A fibrinogen-binding lipoprotein contributes to the virulence of Haemophilus ducreyi in humans.

Bauer ME, Townsend CA, Doster RS, Fortney KR, Zwickl BW, Katz BP, Spinola SM, Janowicz DM.

J Infect Dis. 2009 Mar 1;199(5):684-92. doi: 10.1086/596656.


Evaluation of the repertoire of the TonB-dependent receptors of Haemophilus ducreyi for their role in virulence in humans.

Leduc I, Banks KE, Fortney KR, Patterson KB, Billings SD, Katz BP, Spinola SM, Elkins C.

J Infect Dis. 2008 Apr 15;197(8):1103-9. doi: 10.1086/586901.


The enterobacterial common antigen-like gene cluster of Haemophilus ducreyi contributes to virulence in humans.

Banks KE, Fortney KR, Baker B, Billings SD, Katz BP, Munson RS Jr, Spinola SM.

J Infect Dis. 2008 Jun 1;197(11):1531-6. doi: 10.1086/588001.


Identification of Haemophilus ducreyi genes expressed during human infection.

Bauer ME, Fortney KR, Harrison A, Janowicz DM, Munson RS, Spinola SM.

Microbiology. 2008 Apr;154(Pt 4):1152-1160. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.2007/013953-0.


Outer membrane protein DsrA is the major fibronectin-binding determinant of Haemophilus ducreyi.

Leduc I, White CD, Nepluev I, Throm RE, Spinola SM, Elkins C.

Infect Immun. 2008 Apr;76(4):1608-16. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00994-07. Epub 2008 Jan 22.


Haemophilus ducreyi partially activates human myeloid dendritic cells.

Banks KE, Humphreys TL, Li W, Katz BP, Wilkes DS, Spinola SM.

Infect Immun. 2007 Dec;75(12):5678-85. Epub 2007 Oct 8.


Dysregulated immune profiles for skin and dendritic cells are associated with increased host susceptibility to Haemophilus ducreyi infection in human volunteers.

Humphreys TL, Li L, Li X, Janowicz DM, Fortney KR, Zhao Q, Li W, McClintick J, Katz BP, Wilkes DS, Edenberg HJ, Spinola SM.

Infect Immun. 2007 Dec;75(12):5686-97. Epub 2007 Sep 24.


Experimental infection with Haemophilus ducreyi in persons who are infected with HIV does not cause local or augment systemic viral replication.

Janowicz DM, Tenner-Racz K, Racz P, Humphreys TL, Schnizlein-Bick C, Fortney KR, Zwickl B, Katz BP, Campbell JJ, Ho DD, Spinola SM.

J Infect Dis. 2007 May 15;195(10):1443-51. Epub 2007 Apr 5.


Localization of Haemophilus ducreyi in naturally acquired chancroidal ulcers.

Bauer ME, Townsend CA, Ronald AR, Spinola SM.

Microbes Infect. 2006 Aug;8(9-10):2465-8. Epub 2006 Jul 25.


Expression of Haemophilus ducreyi collagen binding outer membrane protein NcaA is required for virulence in swine and human challenge models of chancroid.

Fulcher RA, Cole LE, Janowicz DM, Toffer KL, Fortney KR, Katz BP, Orndorff PE, Spinola SM, Kawula TH.

Infect Immun. 2006 May;74(5):2651-8.


A DltA mutant of Haemophilus ducreyi Is partially attenuated in its ability to cause pustules in human volunteers.

Janowicz D, Leduc I, Fortney KR, Katz BP, Elkins C, Spinola SM.

Infect Immun. 2006 Feb;74(2):1394-7.


Expression of OmpP2A and OmpP2B is not required for pustule formation by Haemophilus ducreyi in human volunteers.

Janowicz D, Luke NR, Fortney KR, Katz BP, Campagnari AA, Spinola SM.

Microb Pathog. 2006 Mar;40(3):110-5. Epub 2006 Jan 19.


Trafficking pathways and characterization of CD4 and CD8 cells recruited to the skin of humans experimentally infected with Haemophilus ducreyi.

Humphreys TL, Baldridge LA, Billings SD, Campbell JJ, Spinola SM.

Infect Immun. 2005 Jul;73(7):3896-902.

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