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Coordination between Prefrontal Cortex Clock Gene Expression and Corticosterone Contributes to Enhanced Conditioned Fear Extinction Recall.

Woodruff ER, Chun LE, Hinds LR, Varra NM, Tirado D, Morton SJ, McClung CA, Spencer RL.

eNeuro. 2018 Dec 21;5(6). pii: ENEURO.0455-18.2018. doi: 10.1523/ENEURO.0455-18.2018. eCollection 2018 Nov-Dec.


Circadian misalignment has differential effects on affective behavior following exposure to controllable or uncontrollable stress.

Daut RA, Hartsock MJ, Tomczik AC, Watkins LR, Spencer RL, Maier SF, Fonken LK.

Behav Brain Res. 2019 Feb 1;359:440-445. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2018.10.013. Epub 2018 Oct 9.


Glucocorticoid hormones are both a major circadian signal and major stress signal: How this shared signal contributes to a dynamic relationship between the circadian and stress systems.

Spencer RL, Chun LE, Hartsock MJ, Woodruff ER.

Front Neuroendocrinol. 2018 Apr;49:52-71. doi: 10.1016/j.yfrne.2017.12.005. Epub 2017 Dec 26. Review.


Adrenal-dependent and -independent stress-induced Per1 mRNA in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and prefrontal cortex of male and female rats.

Chun LE, Christensen J, Woodruff ER, Morton SJ, Hinds LR, Spencer RL.

Stress. 2018 Jan;21(1):69-83. doi: 10.1080/10253890.2017.1404571. Epub 2017 Nov 22.


Analysis of c-Fos induction in response to social interaction in male and female Fisher 344 rats.

Perkins AE, Woodruff ER, Chun LE, Spencer RL, Varlinskaya E, Deak T.

Brain Res. 2017 Oct 1;1672:113-121. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2017.07.022. Epub 2017 Jul 29.


The relationship between cannabis use and cortisol levels in youth at ultra high-risk for psychosis.

Carol EE, Spencer RL, Mittal VA.

Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2017 Sep;83:58-64. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2017.04.017. Epub 2017 May 30.


Dynamic glucocorticoid-dependent regulation of Sgk1 expression in oligodendrocytes of adult male rat brain by acute stress and time of day.

Hinds LR, Chun LE, Woodruff ER, Christensen JA, Hartsock MJ, Spencer RL.

PLoS One. 2017 Apr 4;12(4):e0175075. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0175075. eCollection 2017.


A users guide to HPA axis research.

Spencer RL, Deak T.

Physiol Behav. 2017 Sep 1;178:43-65. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2016.11.014. Epub 2016 Nov 18. Review.


Sex differences in morning cortisol in youth at ultra-high-risk for psychosis.

Carol EE, Spencer RL, Mittal VA.

Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2016 Oct;72:87-93. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2016.06.013. Epub 2016 Jun 21.


Glucocorticoid Fast Feedback Inhibition of Stress-Induced ACTH Secretion in the Male Rat: Rate Independence and Stress-State Resistance.

Osterlund CD, Rodriguez-Santiago M, Woodruff ER, Newsom RJ, Chadayammuri AP, Spencer RL.

Endocrinology. 2016 Jul;157(7):2785-98. doi: 10.1210/en.2016-1123. Epub 2016 May 4.


Diurnal Corticosterone Presence and Phase Modulate Clock Gene Expression in the Male Rat Prefrontal Cortex.

Woodruff ER, Chun LE, Hinds LR, Spencer RL.

Endocrinology. 2016 Apr;157(4):1522-34. doi: 10.1210/en.2015-1884. Epub 2016 Feb 22.


Adolescent caffeine consumption increases adulthood anxiety-related behavior and modifies neuroendocrine signaling.

O'Neill CE, Newsom RJ, Stafford J, Scott T, Archuleta S, Levis SC, Spencer RL, Campeau S, Bachtell RK.

Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2016 May;67:40-50. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2016.01.030. Epub 2016 Feb 1.


A working model for the assessment of disruptions in social behavior among aged rats: The role of sex differences, social recognition, and sensorimotor processes.

Perkins AE, Doremus-Fitzwater TL, Spencer RL, Varlinskaya EI, Conti MM, Bishop C, Deak T.

Exp Gerontol. 2016 Apr;76:46-57. doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2016.01.012. Epub 2016 Jan 23.


Variations in Phase and Amplitude of Rhythmic Clock Gene Expression across Prefrontal Cortex, Hippocampus, Amygdala, and Hypothalamic Paraventricular and Suprachiasmatic Nuclei of Male and Female Rats.

Chun LE, Woodruff ER, Morton S, Hinds LR, Spencer RL.

J Biol Rhythms. 2015 Oct;30(5):417-36. doi: 10.1177/0748730415598608. Epub 2015 Aug 13.


Adrenal-dependent diurnal modulation of conditioned fear extinction learning.

Woodruff ER, Greenwood BN, Chun LE, Fardi S, Hinds LR, Spencer RL.

Behav Brain Res. 2015 Jun 1;286:249-55. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2015.03.006. Epub 2015 Mar 6.


Greater glucocorticoid receptor activation in hippocampus of aged rats sensitizes microglia.

Barrientos RM, Thompson VM, Kitt MM, Amat J, Hale MW, Frank MG, Crysdale NY, Stamper CE, Hennessey PA, Watkins LR, Spencer RL, Lowry CA, Maier SF.

Neurobiol Aging. 2015 Mar;36(3):1483-95. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2014.12.003. Epub 2014 Dec 11.


Role of the dorsomedial hypothalamus in glucocorticoid-mediated feedback inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

Stamper CE, Hennessey PA, Hale MW, Lukkes JL, Donner NC, Lowe KR, Paul ED, Spencer RL, Renner KJ, Orchinik M, Lowry CA.

Stress. 2015 Jan;18(1):76-87. doi: 10.3109/10253890.2015.1004537. Epub 2015 Feb 17.


'I thought it would keep them all quiet'. Women's experiences of breastfeeding as illusions of compliance: an interpretive phenomenological study.

Spencer RL, Greatrex-White S, Fraser DM.

J Adv Nurs. 2015 May;71(5):1076-86. doi: 10.1111/jan.12592. Epub 2014 Dec 8.


Altered entrainment to the day/night cycle attenuates the daily rise in circulating corticosterone in the mouse.

Sollars PJ, Weiser MJ, Kudwa AE, Bramley JR, Ogilvie MD, Spencer RL, Handa RJ, Pickard GE.

PLoS One. 2014 Nov 3;9(11):e111944. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111944. eCollection 2014.


CRTC2 activation in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, but not paraventricular nucleus, varies in a diurnal fashion and increases with nighttime light exposure.

Highland JA, Weiser MJ, Hinds LR, Spencer RL.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2014 Oct 1;307(7):C611-21. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00319.2013. Epub 2014 Jul 30.


Absence of glucocorticoids augments stress-induced Mkp1 mRNA expression within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

Osterlund CD, Thompson V, Hinds L, Spencer RL.

J Endocrinol. 2013 Nov 28;220(1):1-11. doi: 10.1530/JOE-13-0365. Print 2014 Jan.


An unexpected increase in restraint duration alters the expression of stress response habituation.

Kearns RR, Spencer RL.

Physiol Behav. 2013 Oct 2;122:193-200. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2013.03.029. Epub 2013 Apr 6.


Cannabinoid receptor type 1 antagonism significantly modulates basal and loud noise induced neural and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

Newsom RJ, Osterlund C, Masini CV, Day HE, Spencer RL, Campeau S.

Neuroscience. 2012 Mar 1;204:64-73. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2011.11.043. Epub 2011 Nov 28.


Tonic, but not phasic corticosterone, constrains stress activatedextracellular-regulated-kinase 1/ 2 immunoreactivity within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.

Osterlund CD, Jarvis E, Chadayammuri A, Unnithan R, Weiser MJ, Spencer RL.

J Neuroendocrinol. 2011 Dec;23(12):1241-51. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2826.2011.02220.x.


Influence of Pre-Training Predator Stress on the Expression of c-fos mRNA in the Hippocampus, Amygdala, and Striatum Following Long-Term Spatial Memory Retrieval.

Vanelzakker MB, Zoladz PR, Thompson VM, Park CR, Halonen JD, Spencer RL, Diamond DM.

Front Behav Neurosci. 2011 Jun 24;5:30. doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2011.00030. eCollection 2011.


Practice improvement, breastfeeding duration and health visitors.

Spencer RL, Greatrex-White S, Fraser DM.

Community Pract. 2010 Sep;83(9):19-22.


Inescapable but not escapable stress leads to increased struggling behavior and basolateral amygdala c-fos gene expression in response to subsequent novel stress challenge.

Weinberg MS, Grissom N, Paul E, Bhatnagar S, Maier SF, Spencer RL.

Neuroscience. 2010 Sep 29;170(1):138-48. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2010.06.052. Epub 2010 Jun 30.


Medial prefrontal cortex activity can disrupt the expression of stress response habituation.

Weinberg MS, Johnson DC, Bhatt AP, Spencer RL.

Neuroscience. 2010 Jul 14;168(3):744-56. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2010.04.006. Epub 2010 Apr 13.


TORC: a new twist on corticotropin-releasing hormone gene expression.

Spencer RL, Weiser MJ.

Endocrinology. 2010 Mar;151(3):855-8. doi: 10.1210/en.2009-1503. No abstract available.


A systematic review of the experiences and perceptions of the newly qualified nurse in the United Kingdom.

Higgins G, Spencer RL, Kane R.

Nurse Educ Today. 2010 Aug;30(6):499-508. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2009.10.017. Epub 2009 Nov 25. Review.


Diurnal expression of functional and clock-related genes throughout the rat HPA axis: system-wide shifts in response to a restricted feeding schedule.

Girotti M, Weinberg MS, Spencer RL.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Apr;296(4):E888-97. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.90946.2008. Epub 2009 Feb 3.


Differential glucocorticoid effects on stress-induced gene expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and ACTH secretion in the rat.

Pace TW, Gaylord RI, Jarvis E, Girotti M, Spencer RL.

Stress. 2009 Sep;12(5):400-11. doi: 10.1080/10253890802530730.


Environmental novelty is associated with a selective increase in Fos expression in the output elements of the hippocampal formation and the perirhinal cortex.

VanElzakker M, Fevurly RD, Breindel T, Spencer RL.

Learn Mem. 2008 Dec 2;15(12):899-908. doi: 10.1101/lm.1196508. Print 2008 Dec.


Repeated ferret odor exposure induces different temporal patterns of same-stressor habituation and novel-stressor sensitization in both hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and forebrain c-fos expression in the rat.

Weinberg MS, Bhatt AP, Girotti M, Masini CV, Day HE, Campeau S, Spencer RL.

Endocrinology. 2009 Feb;150(2):749-61. doi: 10.1210/en.2008-0958. Epub 2008 Oct 9.


Restraint stress and exogenous corticosterone differentially alter sensitivity to the sedative-hypnotic effects of ethanol in inbred long-sleep and inbred short-sleep mice.

Parker CC, Ponicsan H, Spencer RL, Holmes A, Johnson TE.

Alcohol. 2008 Sep;42(6):477-85. doi: 10.1016/j.alcohol.2008.05.004.


Research methodologies to investigate the experience of breastfeeding: a discussion paper.

Spencer RL.

Int J Nurs Stud. 2008 Dec;45(12):1823-30. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2008.04.008. Epub 2008 Jun 2. Review.


Restraint-induced fra-2 and c-fos expression in the rat forebrain: relationship to stress duration.

Weinberg MS, Girotti M, Spencer RL.

Neuroscience. 2007 Dec 5;150(2):478-86. Epub 2007 Sep 14.


Short-term treadmill running in the rat: what kind of stressor is it?

Brown DA, Johnson MS, Armstrong CJ, Lynch JM, Caruso NM, Ehlers LB, Fleshner M, Spencer RL, Moore RL.

J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007 Dec;103(6):1979-85. Epub 2007 Oct 4.


Differential responses of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis immediate early genes to corticosterone and circadian drive.

Girotti M, Weinberg MS, Spencer RL.

Endocrinology. 2007 May;148(5):2542-52. Epub 2007 Feb 15.


The role of glucocorticoids in the uncontrollable stress-induced potentiation of nucleus accumbens shell dopamine and conditioned place preference responses to morphine.

Der-Avakian A, Bland ST, Schmid MJ, Watkins LR, Spencer RL, Maier SF.

Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2006 Jun;31(5):653-63. Epub 2006 Apr 3.


Habituation to repeated restraint stress is associated with lack of stress-induced c-fos expression in primary sensory processing areas of the rat brain.

Girotti M, Pace TW, Gaylord RI, Rubin BA, Herman JP, Spencer RL.

Neuroscience. 2006;138(4):1067-81. Epub 2006 Jan 23.


Specific and time-dependent effects of glucocorticoid receptor agonist RU28362 on stress-induced pro-opiomelanocortin hnRNA, c-fos mRNA and zif268 mRNA in the pituitary.

Ginsberg AB, Frank MG, Francis AB, Rubin BA, O'Connor KA, Spencer RL.

J Neuroendocrinol. 2006 Feb;18(2):129-38.


Immediate-early gene induction in hippocampus and cortex as a result of novel experience is not directly related to the stressfulness of that experience.

Pace TW, Gaylord R, Topczewski F, Girotti M, Rubin B, Spencer RL.

Eur J Neurosci. 2005 Oct;22(7):1679-90.


Expression of c-fos and BDNF mRNA in subregions of the prefrontal cortex of male and female rats after acute uncontrollable stress.

Bland ST, Schmid MJ, Der-Avakian A, Watkins LR, Spencer RL, Maier SF.

Brain Res. 2005 Jul 27;1051(1-2):90-9.


Surgical and pharmacological suppression of glucocorticoids prevents the enhancement of morphine conditioned place preference by uncontrollable stress in rats.

Der-Avakian A, Will MJ, Bland ST, Deak T, Nguyen KT, Schmid MJ, Spencer RL, Watkins LR, Maier SF.

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005 May;179(2):409-17. Epub 2004 Nov 17.


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