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The Aminoalkylindole BML-190 Negatively Regulates Chitosan Synthesis via the Cyclic AMP/Protein Kinase A1 Pathway in Cryptococcus neoformans.

Maybruck BT, Lam WC, Specht CA, Ilagan MXG, Donlin MJ, Lodge JK.

mBio. 2019 Dec 17;10(6). pii: e02264-19. doi: 10.1128/mBio.02264-19.


Protection of mice against experimental cryptococcosis using glucan particle-based vaccines containing novel recombinant antigens.

Hester MM, Lee CK, Abraham A, Khoshkenar P, Ostroff GR, Levitz SM, Specht CA.

Vaccine. 2020 Jan 16;38(3):620-626. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.10.051. Epub 2019 Nov 4.


Chitosan Biosynthesis and Virulence in the Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus gattii.

Lam WC, Upadhya R, Specht CA, Ragsdale AE, Hole CR, Levitz SM, Lodge JK.

mSphere. 2019 Oct 9;4(5). pii: e00644-19. doi: 10.1128/mSphere.00644-19.


Cryptococcus neoformans Cda1 and Its Chitin Deacetylase Activity Are Required for Fungal Pathogenesis.

Upadhya R, Baker LG, Lam WC, Specht CA, Donlin MJ, Lodge JK.

mBio. 2018 Nov 20;9(6). pii: e02087-18. doi: 10.1128/mBio.02087-18.


Vaccination with an alkaline extract of Histoplasma capsulatum packaged in glucan particles confers protective immunity in mice.

Deepe GS Jr, Buesing WR, Ostroff GR, Abraham A, Specht CA, Huang H, Levitz SM.

Vaccine. 2018 May 31;36(23):3359-3367. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.04.047. Epub 2018 May 2.


Vaccination with Recombinant Cryptococcus Proteins in Glucan Particles Protects Mice against Cryptococcosis in a Manner Dependent upon Mouse Strain and Cryptococcal Species.

Specht CA, Lee CK, Huang H, Hester MM, Liu J, Luckie BA, Torres Santana MA, Mirza Z, Khoshkenar P, Abraham A, Shen ZT, Lodge JK, Akalin A, Homan J, Ostroff GR, Levitz SM.

mBio. 2017 Nov 28;8(6). pii: e01872-17. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01872-17.


Central Role of IL-23 and IL-17 Producing Eosinophils as Immunomodulatory Effector Cells in Acute Pulmonary Aspergillosis and Allergic Asthma.

Guerra ES, Lee CK, Specht CA, Yadav B, Huang H, Akalin A, Huh JR, Mueller C, Levitz SM.

PLoS Pathog. 2017 Jan 17;13(1):e1006175. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006175. eCollection 2017 Jan.


Induction of Protective Immunity to Cryptococcal Infection in Mice by a Heat-Killed, Chitosan-Deficient Strain of Cryptococcus neoformans.

Upadhya R, Lam WC, Maybruck B, Specht CA, Levitz SM, Lodge JK.

mBio. 2016 May 10;7(3). pii: e00547-16. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00547-16.


Protection against Experimental Cryptococcosis following Vaccination with Glucan Particles Containing Cryptococcus Alkaline Extracts.

Specht CA, Lee CK, Huang H, Tipper DJ, Shen ZT, Lodge JK, Leszyk J, Ostroff GR, Levitz SM.

mBio. 2015 Dec 22;6(6):e01905-15. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01905-15.


Chitin recognition via chitotriosidase promotes pathologic type-2 helper T cell responses to cryptococcal infection.

Wiesner DL, Specht CA, Lee CK, Smith KD, Mukaremera L, Lee ST, Lee CG, Elias JA, Nielsen JN, Boulware DR, Bohjanen PR, Jenkins MK, Levitz SM, Nielsen K.

PLoS Pathog. 2015 Mar 12;11(3):e1004701. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004701. eCollection 2015 Mar.


Knickkopf and retroactive proteins are required for formation of laminar serosal procuticle during embryonic development of Tribolium castaneum.

Chaudhari SS, Noh MY, Moussian B, Specht CA, Kramer KJ, Beeman RW, Arakane Y, Muthukrishnan S.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2015 May;60:1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ibmb.2015.02.013. Epub 2015 Mar 4.


Recognition of Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae by human plasmacytoid dendritic cells is mediated by dectin-2 and results in formation of extracellular traps.

Loures FV, Röhm M, Lee CK, Santos E, Wang JP, Specht CA, Calich VL, Urban CF, Levitz SM.

PLoS Pathog. 2015 Feb 6;11(2):e1004643. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004643. eCollection 2015 Feb.


Exploiting fungal cell wall components in vaccines.

Levitz SM, Huang H, Ostroff GR, Specht CA.

Semin Immunopathol. 2015 Mar;37(2):199-207. doi: 10.1007/s00281-014-0460-6. Epub 2014 Nov 18. Review.


Functional specialization among members of Knickkopf family of proteins in insect cuticle organization.

Chaudhari SS, Moussian B, Specht CA, Arakane Y, Kramer KJ, Beeman RW, Muthukrishnan S.

PLoS Genet. 2014 Aug 21;10(8):e1004537. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004537. eCollection 2014 Aug.


Cross talk between the cell wall integrity and cyclic AMP/protein kinase A pathways in Cryptococcus neoformans.

Donlin MJ, Upadhya R, Gerik KJ, Lam W, VanArendonk LG, Specht CA, Sharma NK, Lodge JK.

mBio. 2014 Aug 12;5(4). pii: e01573-14. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01573-14.


Spectrum and mechanisms of inflammasome activation by chitosan.

Bueter CL, Lee CK, Wang JP, Ostroff GR, Specht CA, Levitz SM.

J Immunol. 2014 Jun 15;192(12):5943-51. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1301695. Epub 2014 May 14.


Characterization and optimization of the glucan particle-based vaccine platform.

Huang H, Ostroff GR, Lee CK, Specht CA, Levitz SM.

Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013 Oct;20(10):1585-91. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00463-13. Epub 2013 Aug 14.


Retroactive maintains cuticle integrity by promoting the trafficking of Knickkopf into the procuticle of Tribolium castaneum.

Chaudhari SS, Arakane Y, Specht CA, Moussian B, Kramer KJ, Muthukrishnan S, Beeman RW.

PLoS Genet. 2013;9(1):e1003268. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003268. Epub 2013 Jan 31.


Innate sensing of chitin and chitosan.

Bueter CL, Specht CA, Levitz SM.

PLoS Pathog. 2013 Jan;9(1):e1003080. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003080. Epub 2013 Jan 10. No abstract available.


Gene families of cuticular proteins analogous to peritrophins (CPAPs) in Tribolium castaneum have diverse functions.

Jasrapuria S, Specht CA, Kramer KJ, Beeman RW, Muthukrishnan S.

PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e49844. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049844. Epub 2012 Nov 21.


Pharyngeal polysaccharide deacetylases affect development in the nematode C. elegans and deacetylate chitin in vitro.

Heustis RJ, Ng HK, Brand KJ, Rogers MC, Le LT, Specht CA, Fuhrman JA.

PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e40426. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040426. Epub 2012 Jul 13.


Relative contributions of dectin-1 and complement to immune responses to particulate β-glucans.

Huang H, Ostroff GR, Lee CK, Agarwal S, Ram S, Rice PA, Specht CA, Levitz SM.

J Immunol. 2012 Jul 1;189(1):312-7. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1200603. Epub 2012 May 30.


A glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor is required for membrane localization but dispensable for cell wall association of chitin deacetylase 2 in Cryptococcus neoformans.

Gilbert NM, Baker LG, Specht CA, Lodge JK.

mBio. 2012 Feb 21;3(1). pii: e00007-12. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00007-12. Print 2012.


Genomic and proteomic studies on the effects of the insect growth regulator diflubenzuron in the model beetle species Tribolium castaneum.

Merzendorfer H, Kim HS, Chaudhari SS, Kumari M, Specht CA, Butcher S, Brown SJ, Manak JR, Beeman RW, Kramer KJ, Muthukrishnan S.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2012 Apr;42(4):264-76. doi: 10.1016/j.ibmb.2011.12.008. Epub 2011 Dec 28.


Knickkopf protein protects and organizes chitin in the newly synthesized insect exoskeleton.

Chaudhari SS, Arakane Y, Specht CA, Moussian B, Boyle DL, Park Y, Kramer KJ, Beeman RW, Muthukrishnan S.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Oct 11;108(41):17028-33. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1112288108. Epub 2011 Sep 19.


Linkage specificity and role of properdin in activation of the alternative complement pathway by fungal glycans.

Agarwal S, Specht CA, Haibin H, Ostroff GR, Ram S, Rice PA, Levitz SM.

mBio. 2011 Aug 30;2(5). pii: e00178-11. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00178-11. Print 2011.


Chitosan but not chitin activates the inflammasome by a mechanism dependent upon phagocytosis.

Bueter CL, Lee CK, Rathinam VA, Healy GJ, Taron CH, Specht CA, Levitz SM.

J Biol Chem. 2011 Oct 14;286(41):35447-55. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M111.274936. Epub 2011 Aug 23.


Cell wall chitosan is necessary for virulence in the opportunistic pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans.

Baker LG, Specht CA, Lodge JK.

Eukaryot Cell. 2011 Sep;10(9):1264-8. doi: 10.1128/EC.05138-11. Epub 2011 Jul 22.


A nonredundant role for plasmacytoid dendritic cells in host defense against the human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus.

Ramirez-Ortiz ZG, Lee CK, Wang JP, Boon L, Specht CA, Levitz SM.

Cell Host Microbe. 2011 May 19;9(5):415-24. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2011.04.007.


Glucuronoxylomannan, galactoxylomannan, and mannoprotein occupy spatially separate and discrete regions in the capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans.

Jesus MD, Nicola AM, Chow SK, Lee IR, Nong S, Specht CA, Levitz SM, Casadevall A.

Virulence. 2010 Nov-Dec;1(6):500-8. Epub 2010 Nov 1.


Robust stimulation of humoral and cellular immune responses following vaccination with antigen-loaded beta-glucan particles.

Huang H, Ostroff GR, Lee CK, Specht CA, Levitz SM.

mBio. 2010 Jul 20;1(3). pii: e00164-10. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00164-10.


KRE genes are required for beta-1,6-glucan synthesis, maintenance of capsule architecture and cell wall protein anchoring in Cryptococcus neoformans.

Gilbert NM, Donlin MJ, Gerik KJ, Specht CA, Djordjevic JT, Wilson CF, Sorrell TC, Lodge JK.

Mol Microbiol. 2010 Apr;76(2):517-34. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2010.07119.x. Epub 2010 Apr 6.


Chitinases are essential for sexual development but not vegetative growth in Cryptococcus neoformans.

Baker LG, Specht CA, Lodge JK.

Eukaryot Cell. 2009 Nov;8(11):1692-705. doi: 10.1128/EC.00227-09. Epub 2009 Sep 4.


Distinct patterns of dendritic cell cytokine release stimulated by fungal beta-glucans and toll-like receptor agonists.

Huang H, Ostroff GR, Lee CK, Wang JP, Specht CA, Levitz SM.

Infect Immun. 2009 May;77(5):1774-81. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00086-09. Epub 2009 Mar 9.


Analysis of functions of the chitin deacetylase gene family in Tribolium castaneum.

Arakane Y, Dixit R, Begum K, Park Y, Specht CA, Merzendorfer H, Kramer KJ, Muthukrishnan S, Beeman RW.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2009 May-Jun;39(5-6):355-65. doi: 10.1016/j.ibmb.2009.02.002. Epub 2009 Mar 5.


Chitin synthases are required for survival, fecundity and egg hatch in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

Arakane Y, Specht CA, Kramer KJ, Muthukrishnan S, Beeman RW.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2008 Oct;38(10):959-62. doi: 10.1016/j.ibmb.2008.07.006. Epub 2008 Jul 31.


PKC1 is essential for protection against both oxidative and nitrosative stresses, cell integrity, and normal manifestation of virulence factors in the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans.

Gerik KJ, Bhimireddy SR, Ryerse JS, Specht CA, Lodge JK.

Eukaryot Cell. 2008 Oct;7(10):1685-98. doi: 10.1128/EC.00146-08. Epub 2008 Aug 8.


Domain organization and phylogenetic analysis of proteins from the chitin deacetylase gene family of Tribolium castaneum and three other species of insects.

Dixit R, Arakane Y, Specht CA, Richard C, Kramer KJ, Beeman RW, Muthukrishnan S.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2008 Apr;38(4):440-51. doi: 10.1016/j.ibmb.2007.12.002. Epub 2007 Dec 14.


Toll-like receptor 9-dependent immune activation by unmethylated CpG motifs in Aspergillus fumigatus DNA.

Ramirez-Ortiz ZG, Specht CA, Wang JP, Lee CK, Bartholomeu DC, Gazzinelli RT, Levitz SM.

Infect Immun. 2008 May;76(5):2123-9. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00047-08. Epub 2008 Mar 10.


Contribution of glycosylation to T cell responses stimulated by recombinant Cryptococcus neoformans mannoprotein.

Specht CA, Nong S, Dan JM, Lee CK, Levitz SM.

J Infect Dis. 2007 Sep 1;196(5):796-800. Epub 2007 Jul 20.


Chitosan, the deacetylated form of chitin, is necessary for cell wall integrity in Cryptococcus neoformans.

Baker LG, Specht CA, Donlin MJ, Lodge JK.

Eukaryot Cell. 2007 May;6(5):855-67. Epub 2007 Mar 30.


The molecular basis for the immunogenicity of Cryptococcus neoformans mannoproteins.

Levitz SM, Specht CA.

FEMS Yeast Res. 2006 Jun;6(4):513-24. Review.


Heterologous expression of an Entamoeba histolytica chitin synthase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Van Dellen KL, Bulik DA, Specht CA, Robbins PW, Samuelson JC.

Eukaryot Cell. 2006 Jan;5(1):203-6.


A model vaccine exploiting fungal mannosylation to increase antigen immunogenicity.

Lam JS, Mansour MK, Specht CA, Levitz SM.

J Immunol. 2005 Dec 1;175(11):7496-503.


A chitin synthase and its regulator protein are critical for chitosan production and growth of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans.

Banks IR, Specht CA, Donlin MJ, Gerik KJ, Levitz SM, Lodge JK.

Eukaryot Cell. 2005 Nov;4(11):1902-12.


Candida albicans CHT3 encodes the functional homolog of the Cts1 chitinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Dünkler A, Walther A, Specht CA, Wendland J.

Fungal Genet Biol. 2005 Nov;42(11):935-47. Epub 2005 Oct 7.


The Tribolium chitin synthase genes TcCHS1 and TcCHS2 are specialized for synthesis of epidermal cuticle and midgut peritrophic matrix.

Arakane Y, Muthukrishnan S, Kramer KJ, Specht CA, Tomoyasu Y, Lorenzen MD, Kanost M, Beeman RW.

Insect Mol Biol. 2005 Oct;14(5):453-63.


Characterization of a nucleus-encoded chitinase from the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis.

Colussi PA, Specht CA, Taron CH.

Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005 Jun;71(6):2862-9.


Chitin synthase genes in Manduca sexta: characterization of a gut-specific transcript and differential tissue expression of alternately spliced mRNAs during development.

Hogenkamp DG, Arakane Y, Zimoch L, Merzendorfer H, Kramer KJ, Beeman RW, Kanost MR, Specht CA, Muthukrishnan S.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2005 Jun;35(6):529-40. Epub 2005 Mar 7.


An interactional network of genes involved in chitin synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Lesage G, Shapiro J, Specht CA, Sdicu AM, Ménard P, Hussein S, Tong AH, Boone C, Bussey H.

BMC Genet. 2005 Feb 16;6:8.

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