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The Cervicovaginal Microbiota and Its Associations With Human Papillomavirus Detection in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Women.

Reimers LL, Mehta SD, Massad LS, Burk RD, Xie X, Ravel J, Cohen MH, Palefsky JM, Weber KM, Xue X, Anastos K, Minkoff H, Atrio J, D'Souza G, Ye Q, Colie C, Zolnik CP, Spear GT, Strickler HD.

J Infect Dis. 2016 Nov 1;214(9):1361-1369. Epub 2016 Aug 11.


Glycogen Levels in Undiluted Genital Fluid and Their Relationship to Vaginal pH, Estrogen, and Progesterone.

Mirmonsef P, Hotton AL, Gilbert D, Gioia CJ, Maric D, Hope TJ, Landay AL, Spear GT.

PLoS One. 2016 Apr 19;11(4):e0153553. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0153553. eCollection 2016.


Characterization of IL-22 and IL-17 Expressing Leukocytes in the Cervix.

Makinde HM, Lurain N, Bitterman P, Martinson J, Plants J, Landay AL, Spear GT.

Am J Reprod Immunol. 2016 Jan;75(1):42-50. doi: 10.1111/aji.12435. Epub 2015 Oct 13.


Effect of pH on Cleavage of Glycogen by Vaginal Enzymes.

Spear GT, McKenna M, Landay AL, Makinde H, Hamaker B, French AL, Lee BH.

PLoS One. 2015 Jul 14;10(7):e0132646. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0132646. eCollection 2015.


T. vaginalis Infection Is Associated with Increased IL-8 and TNFr1 Levels but with the Absence of CD38 and HLADR Activation in the Cervix of ESN.

Jarrett OD, Brady KE, Modur SP, Plants J, Landay AL, Ghassemi M, Golub ET, Spear GT, Novak RM.

PLoS One. 2015 Jun 17;10(6):e0130146. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0130146. eCollection 2015.


The vaginal microbiota over an 8- to 10-year period in a cohort of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women.

Mehta SD, Donovan B, Weber KM, Cohen M, Ravel J, Gajer P, Gilbert D, Burgad D, Spear GT.

PLoS One. 2015 Feb 12;10(2):e0116894. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0116894. eCollection 2015.


Cleavage/alteration of interleukin-8 by matrix metalloproteinase-9 in the female lower genital tract.

Zariffard MR, Anastos K, French AL, Munyazesa E, Cohen M, Landay AL, Spear GT.

PLoS One. 2015 Jan 22;10(1):e0116911. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0116911. eCollection 2015.


Exploratory comparison of vaginal glycogen and Lactobacillus levels in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

Mirmonsef P, Modur S, Burgad D, Gilbert D, Golub ET, French AL, McCotter K, Landay AL, Spear GT.

Menopause. 2015 Jul;22(7):702-9. doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000000397.


Free glycogen in vaginal fluids is associated with Lactobacillus colonization and low vaginal pH.

Mirmonsef P, Hotton AL, Gilbert D, Burgad D, Landay A, Weber KM, Cohen M, Ravel J, Spear GT.

PLoS One. 2014 Jul 17;9(7):e102467. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102467. eCollection 2014.


Comparison of lower genital tract microbiota in HIV-infected and uninfected women from Rwanda and the US.

Benning L, Golub ET, Anastos K, French AL, Cohen M, Gilbert D, Gillevet P, Munyazesa E, Landay AL, Sikaroodi M, Spear GT.

PLoS One. 2014 May 9;9(5):e96844. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096844. eCollection 2014.


Human α-amylase present in lower-genital-tract mucosal fluid processes glycogen to support vaginal colonization by Lactobacillus.

Spear GT, French AL, Gilbert D, Zariffard MR, Mirmonsef P, Sullivan TH, Spear WW, Landay A, Micci S, Lee BH, Hamaker BR.

J Infect Dis. 2014 Oct 1;210(7):1019-28. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu231. Epub 2014 Apr 15.


The barrier to HIV transmission provided by genital tract Lactobacillus colonization.

Mirmonsef P, Spear GT.

Am J Reprod Immunol. 2014 Jun;71(6):531-6. doi: 10.1111/aji.12232. Epub 2014 Mar 24. Review.


Effects of Succinic Acid and Other Microbial Fermentation Products on HIV Expression in Macrophages.

Graham LS, Krass L, Zariffard MR, Spear GT, Mirmonsef P.

Biores Open Access. 2013 Oct;2(5):385-91. doi: 10.1089/biores.2013.0013.


Bovine papillomavirus-like particles presenting conserved epitopes from membrane-proximal external region of HIV-1 gp41 induced mucosal and systemic antibodies.

Zhai Y, Zhong Z, Zariffard M, Spear GT, Qiao L.

Vaccine. 2013 Nov 4;31(46):5422-9. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.09.003. Epub 2013 Sep 19.


Lectin-dependent enhancement of Ebola virus infection via soluble and transmembrane C-type lectin receptors.

Brudner M, Karpel M, Lear C, Chen L, Yantosca LM, Scully C, Sarraju A, Sokolovska A, Zariffard MR, Eisen DP, Mungall BA, Kotton DN, Omari A, Huang IC, Farzan M, Takahashi K, Stuart L, Stahl GL, Ezekowitz AB, Spear GT, Olinger GG, Schmidt EV, Michelow IC.

PLoS One. 2013;8(4):e60838. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060838. Epub 2013 Apr 2.


IL-22 levels are associated with Trichomonas vaginalis infection in the lower genital tract.

Makinde HM, Zariffard R, Mirmonsef P, Novak RM, Jarrett O, Landay AL, Spear GT.

Am J Reprod Immunol. 2013 Jul;70(1):38-44. doi: 10.1111/aji.12100. Epub 2013 Feb 27.


Microbial diversity of genital ulcer disease in men enrolled in a randomized trial of male circumcision in Kisumu, Kenya.

Mehta SD, Green SJ, Maclean I, Hu H, Bailey RC, Gillevet PM, Spear GT.

PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e38991. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038991. Epub 2012 Jul 27.


Synovial fluid from patients with early osteoarthritis modulates fibroblast-like synoviocyte responses to toll-like receptor 4 and toll-like receptor 2 ligands via soluble CD14.

Nair A, Kanda V, Bush-Joseph C, Verma N, Chubinskaya S, Mikecz K, Glant TT, Malfait AM, Crow MK, Spear GT, Finnegan A, Scanzello CR.

Arthritis Rheum. 2012 Jul;64(7):2268-77. doi: 10.1002/art.34495.


The role of bacterial vaginosis and trichomonas in HIV transmission across the female genital tract.

Mirmonsef P, Krass L, Landay A, Spear GT.

Curr HIV Res. 2012 Apr;10(3):202-10. Review.


Longitudinal assessment of pigtailed macaque lower genital tract microbiota by pyrosequencing reveals dissimilarity to the genital microbiota of healthy humans.

Spear GT, Kersh E, Guenthner P, Vishwanathan SA, Gilbert D, Zariffard MR, Mirmonsef P, Landay A, Zheng L, Gillevet P.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012 Oct;28(10):1244-9. Epub 2012 May 3.


Short-chain fatty acids induce pro-inflammatory cytokine production alone and in combination with toll-like receptor ligands.

Mirmonsef P, Zariffard MR, Gilbert D, Makinde H, Landay AL, Spear GT.

Am J Reprod Immunol. 2012 May;67(5):391-400. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2011.01089.x. Epub 2011 Nov 8.


Policosanol for managing human immunodeficiency virus-related dyslipidemia in a medically underserved population: a randomized, controlled clinical trial.

Swanson B, Keithley JK, Sha BE, Fogg L, Nerad J, Novak RM, Adeyemi O, Spear GT.

Altern Ther Health Med. 2011 Mar-Apr;17(2):30-5.


A comparison of lower genital tract glycogen and lactic acid levels in women and macaques: implications for HIV and SIV susceptibility.

Mirmonsef P, Gilbert D, Veazey RS, Wang J, Kendrick SR, Spear GT.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012 Jan;28(1):76-81. doi: 10.1089/AID.2011.0071. Epub 2011 Jun 28.


Multiplex immunoassay of lower genital tract mucosal fluid from women attending an urban STD clinic shows broadly increased IL1ß and lactoferrin.

Spear GT, Kendrick SR, Chen HY, Thomas TT, Bahk M, Balderas R, Ghosh S, Weinberg A, Landay AL.

PLoS One. 2011 May 10;6(5):e19560. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019560.


High-dose mannose-binding lectin therapy for Ebola virus infection.

Michelow IC, Lear C, Scully C, Prugar LI, Longley CB, Yantosca LM, Ji X, Karpel M, Brudner M, Takahashi K, Spear GT, Ezekowitz RA, Schmidt EV, Olinger GG.

J Infect Dis. 2011 Jan 15;203(2):175-9. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiq025.


The effects of commensal bacteria on innate immune responses in the female genital tract.

Mirmonsef P, Gilbert D, Zariffard MR, Hamaker BR, Kaur A, Landay AL, Spear GT.

Am J Reprod Immunol. 2011 Mar;65(3):190-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2010.00943.x. Epub 2010 Dec 9. Review.


Pyrosequencing of the genital microbiotas of HIV-seropositive and -seronegative women reveals Lactobacillus iners as the predominant Lactobacillus Species.

Spear GT, Gilbert D, Landay AL, Zariffard R, French AL, Patel P, Gillevet PM.

Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011 Jan;77(1):378-81. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00973-10. Epub 2010 Nov 12.


A novel L-ficolin/mannose-binding lectin chimeric molecule with enhanced activity against Ebola virus.

Michelow IC, Dong M, Mungall BA, Yantosca LM, Lear C, Ji X, Karpel M, Rootes CL, Brudner M, Houen G, Eisen DP, Kinane TB, Takahashi K, Stahl GL, Olinger GG, Spear GT, Ezekowitz RA, Schmidt EV.

J Biol Chem. 2010 Aug 6;285(32):24729-39. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.106260. Epub 2010 Jun 1.


Identification of rhesus macaque genital microbiota by 16S pyrosequencing shows similarities to human bacterial vaginosis: implications for use as an animal model for HIV vaginal infection.

Spear GT, Gilbert D, Sikaroodi M, Doyle L, Green L, Gillevet PM, Landay AL, Veazey RS.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2010 Feb;26(2):193-200. doi: 10.1089/aid.2009.0166.


HSV type 2 infection increases HIV DNA detection in vaginal tissue of mice expressing human CD4 and CCR5.

Zariffard MR, Saifuddin M, Finnegan A, Spear GT.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2009 Nov;25(11):1157-64. doi: 10.1089/aid.2009.0035.


Effect of mucosal fluid from women with bacterial vaginosis on HIV trans-infection mediated by dendritic cells.

St John EP, Zariffard MR, Martinson JA, Simoes JA, Landay AL, Spear GT.

Virology. 2009 Mar 1;385(1):22-7. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2008.08.031. Epub 2008 Dec 30.


Comparison of the diversity of the vaginal microbiota in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women with or without bacterial vaginosis.

Spear GT, Sikaroodi M, Zariffard MR, Landay AL, French AL, Gillevet PM.

J Infect Dis. 2008 Oct 15;198(8):1131-40. doi: 10.1086/591942.


Donor variability in HIV binding to peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

Anzinger JJ, Olinger GG, Spear GT.

Virol J. 2008 Aug 15;5:95. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-5-95.


Positive association between HIV RNA and IL-6 in the genital tract of Rwandan women.

Spear GT, Zariffard MR, Chen HY, Anzinger JJ, Anastos K, Rusine J, Gatabazi J, French AL, Cohen M, Landay AL.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2008 Jul;24(7):973-6. doi: 10.1089/aid.2008.0004.


Vaginal IL-8 levels are positively associated with Candida albicans and inversely with lactobacilli in HIV-infected women.

Spear GT, Zariffard MR, Cohen MH, Sha BE.

J Reprod Immunol. 2008 Jun;78(1):76-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jri.2007.11.001. Epub 2008 Feb 19.


L-ficolin binding and lectin pathway activation by acetylated low-density lipoprotein.

Faro J, Chen Y, Jhaveri P, Oza P, Spear GT, Lint TF, Gewurz H.

Clin Exp Immunol. 2008 Feb;151(2):275-83. Epub 2007 Nov 20.


Bacterial vaginosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection.

Spear GT, St John E, Zariffard MR.

AIDS Res Ther. 2007 Oct 22;4:25.


Human cytomegalovirus and human immunodeficiency virus type-1 co-infection in human cervical tissue.

Fox-Canale AM, Hope TJ, Martinson J, Lurain JR, Rademaker AW, Bremer JW, Landay A, Spear GT, Lurain NS.

Virology. 2007 Dec 5;369(1):55-68. Epub 2007 Aug 22.


Dendritic cell activation and maturation induced by mucosal fluid from women with bacterial vaginosis.

St John EP, Martinson J, Simoes JA, Landay AL, Spear GT.

Clin Immunol. 2007 Oct;125(1):95-102. Epub 2007 Jul 24.


TLR2-mediated cell stimulation in bacterial vaginosis.

Mares D, Simoes JA, Novak RM, Spear GT.

J Reprod Immunol. 2008 Jan;77(1):91-9. Epub 2007 May 29.


Bacterial vaginosis and host immunity.

St John E, Mares D, Spear GT.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2007 Feb;4(1):22-8. Review.


Interaction of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) glycans with lectins of the human immune system.

Ji X, Chen Y, Faro J, Gewurz H, Bremer J, Spear GT.

Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2006 Aug;7(4):317-24. Review.


HIV infection of mononuclear cells is calcium-dependent.

Anzinger JJ, Mezo I, Ji X, Gabali AM, Thomas LL, Spear GT.

Virus Res. 2006 Dec;122(1-2):183-8. Epub 2006 Jul 13.


Relationship of U1 cell HIV-stimulatory activity to bacterial vaginosis and HIV genital tract virus load.

Zariffard MR, Sha BE, Wang QJ, Chen HY, Bremer J, Cohen MH, Spear GT.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2005 Nov;21(11):945-8.


Relationship of HIV RNA and cytokines in saliva from HIV-infected individuals.

Spear GT, Alves ME, Cohen MH, Bremer J, Landay AL.

FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2005 Aug 1;45(2):129-36. Epub 2005 Apr 5.


HIV-inducing factor in cervicovaginal secretions is associated with bacterial vaginosis in HIV-1-infected women.

Cohn JA, Hashemi FB, Camarca M, Kong F, Xu J, Beckner SK, Kovacs AA, Reichelderfer PS, Spear GT.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 Jul 1;39(3):340-6.


Induction of tumor necrosis factor- alpha secretion and toll-like receptor 2 and 4 mRNA expression by genital mucosal fluids from women with bacterial vaginosis.

Zariffard MR, Novak RM, Lurain N, Sha BE, Graham P, Spear GT.

J Infect Dis. 2005 Jun 1;191(11):1913-21. Epub 2005 Apr 28.


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