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J Neurosci. 2017 Oct 11;37(41):9901-9916. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0047-17.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 14.

Regional Cellular Environment Shapes Phenotypic Variations of Hippocampal and Neocortical Chandelier Cells.

Author information

1
Development and Function of Inhibitory Neural Circuits, Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience, Jupiter, Florida 33458.
2
Development and Function of Inhibitory Neural Circuits, Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience, Jupiter, Florida 33458 hiroki.taniguchi@mpfi.org.

Abstract

Different cortical regions processing distinct information, such as the hippocampus and the neocortex, share common cellular components and circuit motifs but form unique networks by modifying these cardinal units. Cortical circuits include diverse types of GABAergic interneurons (INs) that shape activity of excitatory principal neurons (PNs). Canonical IN types conserved across distinct cortical regions have been defined by their morphological, electrophysiological, and neurochemical properties. However, it remains largely unknown whether canonical IN types undergo specific modifications in distinct cortical regions and display "regional variants." It is also poorly understood whether such phenotypic variations are shaped by early specification or regional cellular environment. The chandelier cell (ChC) is a highly stereotyped IN type that innervates axon initial segments of PNs and thus serves as a good model with which to address this issue. Here, we show that Cadherin-6 (Cdh6), a homophilic cell adhesion molecule, is a reliable marker of ChCs and Cdh6-CreER mice (both sexes) provide genetic access to hippocampal ChCs (h-ChCs). We demonstrate that, compared with neocortical ChCs (nc-ChCs), h-ChCs cover twice as much area and innervate twice as many PNs. Interestingly, a subclass of h-ChCs exhibits calretinin (CR) expression, which is not found in nc-ChCs. Furthermore, we find that h-ChCs appear to be born earlier than nc-ChCs. Surprisingly, despite the difference in temporal origins, ChCs display host-region-dependent axonal/synaptic organization and CR expression when transplanted heterotopically. These results suggest that local cellular environment plays a critical role in shaping terminal phenotypes of regional IN variants in the hippocampus and the neocortex.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Canonical interneuron (IN) types conserved across distinct cortical regions such as the hippocampus and the neocortex are defined by morphology, physiology, and gene expression. However, it remains unknown whether they display phenotypic variations in different cortical regions. In addition, it is unclear whether terminal phenotypes of regional IN variants belonging to a canonical IN type are determined intrinsically or extrinsically. Our results provide evidence of striking differences in axonal/synaptic organization and calretinin expression between hippocampal chandelier cells (ChCs) and neocortical ChCs. They also reveal that local cellular environment in distinct cortical regions regulates these terminal phenotypes. Therefore, our study suggests that local cortical environment shapes the phenotypes of regional IN variants, which may be required for unique circuit operations in distinct cortical regions.

KEYWORDS:

cell type; chandelier cell; cortical interneuron; hippocampus; neocortex

PMID:
28912162
DOI:
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0047-17.2017
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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