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Plant Physiol. 1998 Jul;117(3):1023-30.

Second messengers mediate increases in cytosolic calcium in tobacco protoplasts


Addition of membrane-permeable cyclic GMP (cGMP) and cyclic AMP (cAMP) were shown to cause elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) in tobacco (Nicotiana plumbaginofolia) protoplasts. Under the same conditions these cyclic nucleotides were shown to provoke a physiological swelling response in the protoplasts. Nonmembrane-permeable cAMP and cGMP were unable to trigger a detectable [Ca2+]cyt response. Cyclic-nucleotide-mediated elevations in [Ca2+]cyt involved both internal and external Ca2+ stores. Both cAMP- and cGMP-mediated [Ca2+]cyt elevations could be inhibited by the Ca2+-channel blocker verapamil. Addition of inhibitors of phosphodiesterases (isobutylmethylxanthine and zaprinast) and the adenylate cyclase agonist forskolin to the protoplasts (predicted to elevate in vivo cyclic-nucleotide concentrations) caused elevations in [Ca2+]cyt. Addition of the adenylate cyclase inhibitor 2', 5'-dideoxyadenosine before forskolin significantly inhibited the forskolin-induced [Ca2+]cyt elevation. Taken together, these data suggest that a potential communication point for cross-talk between signal transduction pathways using cyclic nucleotides in plants is at the level of Ca2+ signaling.

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