Send to

Choose Destination
Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2014 Nov;7(11):e13122. doi: 10.5812/jjm.13122. Epub 2014 Nov 1.

GB virus C Viremia and Anti-E2 Antibody Response Among Hemodialysis Patients in Gorgan, Iran.

Author information

Department of Virology, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, IR Iran.
Department of Hemodialysis, Azar Hospital, Gorgan, IR Iran.



GB Virus C is a blood-borne virus and a member of Flaviviridae, like hepatitis C that is distributed globally and puts hemodialysis patients at high risk of developing liver disease. The clinical significance of GBV-C in this population remains unclear.


The current study aimed to evaluate GBV-C infection among hemodialysis patients.


Totally, 149 patients receiving hemodialysis were included in the study. The detection of GBV-C sequences in plasma was done by the nested Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific primers selected from highly conserved regions of 5' UTR of GBV-C and antibodies to the envelope protein of GBV-C (anti-E2 GBV-C antibody) were analyzed by also serological methods. In addition, Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), Hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb) IgM, anti- Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and anti- hepatitis E virus (HEV) Ab was determined in patients who were GBV-C RNA and anti-E2 GBV-C antibody positive.


The total prevalence of GBV-C infection was 14.7% (95%CI: 0.09-0.21) among patients receiving hemodialysis. The rate of GBV-C viremia and anti-E2 antibody positivity were 6.04% and 10.73%, respectively. Among the subjects who were positive for GBV-C, 27.27% (95% CI: 0.02-0.09), 45.45% (95% CI: 0.03-0.11), 59.9% (95% CI: 0.06-0.16) and 0% (95% CI: 0.01-0.07) were positive for anti-HCV, anti-HBsAg, anti-HBc IgM and anti-(HEV) Ab, respectively. In addition, the rate of both anti-HBc IgM /anti-HCV/ HBsAg and anti-HBc IgM /anti-HCV positivity in GBV-C infected cases were 9.09%. The liver enzymes were normal in all of them. There was significant difference between GBV-C exposures with viral hepatitis co-infection, but there was no correlation between GBV-C exposure with gender, age, ethnicity, time on dialysis and history of blood transfusions. A relatively high frequency of positivity GBV-C-exposure among hemodialysis patients suggested that the transmission route for GBV-C may be nosocomial transmission, and via transfusions.


The current study found a relatively high frequency of positivity GBV-C-exposure among the patients receiving hemodialysis in the area understudy. Nosocomial transmission seems to be the main route of GBV-C infection in the area.


Anti-E2 GBV-C; GBV-C viremia; Hemodialysis; Iran

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center