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Science. 2018 Jul 6;361(6397):88-92. doi: 10.1126/science.aat3628.

The prehistoric peopling of Southeast Asia.

Author information

1
Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark.
2
National Museum of Natural History, Ecoanthropology and Ethnobiology, Musée de l'Homme, Paris, France.
3
Center for Cultural Resource Studies, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan.
4
Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan.
5
Institut für Sprachwissenschaft, Universität Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
6
University of New England, Armidale, NSW, Australia.
7
Laboratoire AMIS, Université Paul Sabatier (UPS), Toulouse, France.
8
Australian Research Centre for Human Evolution, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD, Australia.
9
Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Archaeology, Silpakorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
10
Department of Heritage, Ministry of Information, Culture and Tourism, Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic.
11
Centre for Global Archaeological Research, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia.
12
Department of Bioinformatics and Genomics, Graduate School of Advanced Preventive Medical Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan.
13
Department of Computational Biology, University of Lausanne and SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne, Switzerland.
14
Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine & Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Sunway City, Selangor, Malaysia.
15
Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
16
Institute of Molecular Biology, National Academy of Sciences, Yerevan, Armenia.
17
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
18
Anthropological and Paleoenvironmental Department, Institute of Archaeology, Hanoi, Vietnam.
19
Department of Archaeology and Natural History, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
20
Balai Archeology, Medan, Indonesia.
21
Nara National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Nara, Japan.
22
University Museum, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
23
Graduate School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Okinawa, Japan.
24
Educational Committee of Tahara City, Tahara, Japan.
25
National Museum of Japanese History, Sakura, Chiba, Japan.
26
Division of Genomics, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
27
Center for Information Biology, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Japan.
28
School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, University of Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
29
Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit (ORAU), University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
30
Laboratoire AMIS, Université Paris Descartes, Faculté de Chirurgie Dentaire, Montrouge, France.
31
École et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.
32
Institut de Physique du Globe de Strasbourg (IPGS) (CNRS/UDS UMR 7516), Strasbourg, France.
33
Laboratory "Image Ville et Environnement LIVE," UMR7362, CNRS and Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.
34
Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL, USA.
35
Natural History Museum of La Rochelle, La Rochelle, France.
36
CNRS, UMR7055 "Préhistoire et Technologie," Maison Archéologie et Ethnologie, Nanterre, France.
37
Research Institute for Development, National Museum of Natural History, UMR Paloc, Paris, France.
38
Department of Anatomy, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
39
Department of Archaeogenetics, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany.
40
École Française d'Extrême-Orient, Paris, France.
41
Department of Bio and Health Informatics, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
42
Leverhulme Centre for Human Evolutionary Studies, Department of Archaeology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
43
Department of Anthropology and Archaeology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
44
St. Catharine's College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
45
Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark. ewillerslev@snm.ku.dk.
46
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, UK.

Abstract

The human occupation history of Southeast Asia (SEA) remains heavily debated. Current evidence suggests that SEA was occupied by Hòabìnhian hunter-gatherers until ~4000 years ago, when farming economies developed and expanded, restricting foraging groups to remote habitats. Some argue that agricultural development was indigenous; others favor the "two-layer" hypothesis that posits a southward expansion of farmers giving rise to present-day Southeast Asian genetic diversity. By sequencing 26 ancient human genomes (25 from SEA, 1 Japanese Jōmon), we show that neither interpretation fits the complexity of Southeast Asian history: Both Hòabìnhian hunter-gatherers and East Asian farmers contributed to current Southeast Asian diversity, with further migrations affecting island SEA and Vietnam. Our results help resolve one of the long-standing controversies in Southeast Asian prehistory.

Comment in

PMID:
29976827
DOI:
10.1126/science.aat3628
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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