Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Sci Adv. 2016 Apr 29;2(4):e1600378. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1600378. eCollection 2016 Apr.

Reduced evolutionary rate in reemerged Ebola virus transmission chains.

Author information

1
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.
2
U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA.
3
Ministry of Health, Monrovia, Liberia.
4
Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA 92122, USA.
5
Liberian Institute for Biomedical Research, Charlesville, Liberia.
6
Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3, U.S. Navy, Cairo, Egypt.
7
Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA.
8
World Health Organization, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.
9
Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3FL, UK.; Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.; Centre for Immunology, Infection and Evolution, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3FL, UK.

Abstract

On 29 June 2015, Liberia's respite from Ebola virus disease (EVD) was interrupted for the second time by a renewed outbreak ("flare-up") of seven confirmed cases. We demonstrate that, similar to the March 2015 flare-up associated with sexual transmission, this new flare-up was a reemergence of a Liberian transmission chain originating from a persistently infected source rather than a reintroduction from a reservoir or a neighboring country with active transmission. Although distinct, Ebola virus (EBOV) genomes from both flare-ups exhibit significantly low genetic divergence, indicating a reduced rate of EBOV evolution during persistent infection. Using this rate of change as a signature, we identified two additional EVD clusters that possibly arose from persistently infected sources. These findings highlight the risk of EVD flare-ups even after an outbreak is declared over.

KEYWORDS:

Ebola virus; Ebola virus disease; Liberia; Western Africa; flare-up; persistent infection; reduced evolutionary rate; reemerged; transmission chain

PMID:
27386513
PMCID:
PMC4928956
DOI:
10.1126/sciadv.1600378
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center