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Lack of efficient killing of purified dormant spores of Bacillales and Clostridiales species by glycerol monolaurate in a non-aqueous gel.

Green J, Korza G, Granados MR, Zenick B, Schlievert PM, Mok WMK, Setlow P.

Lett Appl Microbiol. 2020 Mar 4. doi: 10.1111/lam.13290. [Epub ahead of print]


Effect of non-absorbent intravaginal menstrual/contraceptive products on Staphylococcus aureus and production of the superantigen TSST-1.

Schlievert PM.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2020 Jan;39(1):31-38. doi: 10.1007/s10096-019-03685-x. Epub 2019 Dec 18.


High Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxin Gene Cluster Superantigens in Cystic Fibrosis Clinical Isolates.

Fischer AJ, Kilgore SH, Singh SB, Allen PD, Hansen AR, Limoli DH, Schlievert PM.

Genes (Basel). 2019 Dec 12;10(12). pii: E1036. doi: 10.3390/genes10121036.


Staphylococcal Virulence Factors on the Skin of Atopic Dermatitis Patients.

Moran MC, Cahill MP, Brewer MG, Yoshida T, Knowlden S, Perez-Nazario N, Schlievert PM, Beck LA.

mSphere. 2019 Dec 11;4(6). pii: e00616-19. doi: 10.1128/mSphere.00616-19.


The lipid membrane of HIV-1 stabilizes the viral envelope glycoproteins and modulates their sensitivity to antibody neutralization.

Salimi H, Johnson J, Flores MG, Zhang MS, O'Malley Y, Houtman JC, Schlievert PM, Haim H.

J Biol Chem. 2020 Jan 10;295(2):348-362. doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA119.009481. Epub 2019 Nov 22.


Glycerol Monolaurate Contributes to the Antimicrobial and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Human Milk.

Schlievert PM, Kilgore SH, Seo KS, Leung DYM.

Sci Rep. 2019 Oct 10;9(1):14550. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-51130-y.


Staphylococcal Superantigens Stimulate Epithelial Cells through CD40 To Produce Chemokines.

Schlievert PM, Cahill MP, Hostager BS, Brosnahan AJ, Klingelhutz AJ, Gourronc FA, Bishop GA, Leung DYM.

mBio. 2019 Mar 19;10(2). pii: e00214-19. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00214-19.


Toxins and Superantigens of Group A Streptococci.

Shannon BA, McCormick JK, Schlievert PM.

Microbiol Spectr. 2019 Jan;7(1). doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.GPP3-0054-2018.


Glycerol Monolaurate (GML) and a Nonaqueous Five-Percent GML Gel Kill Bacillus and Clostridium Spores.

Schlievert PM, Kilgore SH, Kaus GM, Ho TD, Ellermeier CD.

mSphere. 2018 Nov 21;3(6). pii: e00597-18. doi: 10.1128/mSphereDirect.00597-18.


Semen Exosomes Promote Transcriptional Silencing of HIV-1 by Disrupting NF-κB/Sp1/Tat Circuitry.

Welch JL, Kaddour H, Schlievert PM, Stapleton JT, Okeoma CM.

J Virol. 2018 Oct 12;92(21). pii: e00731-18. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00731-18. Print 2018 Nov 1.


The Staphylococcus aureus superantigen SElX is a bifunctional toxin that inhibits neutrophil function.

Tuffs SW, James DBA, Bestebroer J, Richards AC, Goncheva MI, O'Shea M, Wee BA, Seo KS, Schlievert PM, Lengeling A, van Strijp JA, Torres VJ, Fitzgerald JR.

PLoS Pathog. 2017 Sep 7;13(9):e1006461. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006461. eCollection 2017 Sep.


Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Enhances the Proinflammatory Effects of Staphylococcus aureus Gamma-Toxin on the Mucosa.

Gillman AN, Breshears LM, Kistler CK, Finnegan PM, Torres VJ, Schlievert PM, Peterson ML.

Toxins (Basel). 2017 Jun 28;9(7). pii: E202. doi: 10.3390/toxins9070202.


Staphylococcal β-Toxin Modulates Human Aortic Endothelial Cell and Platelet Function through Sphingomyelinase and Biofilm Ligase Activities.

Herrera A, Kulhankova K, Sonkar VK, Dayal S, Klingelhutz AJ, Salgado-Pabón W, Schlievert PM.

mBio. 2017 Mar 21;8(2). pii: e00273-17. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00273-17.


Septic transfusion case caused by a platelet pool with visible clotting due to contamination with Staphylococcus aureus.

Loza-Correa M, Kou Y, Taha M, Kalab M, Ronholm J, Schlievert PM, Cahill MP, Skeate R, Cserti-Gazdewich C, Ramirez-Arcos S.

Transfusion. 2017 May;57(5):1299-1303. doi: 10.1111/trf.14049. Epub 2017 Feb 16.


Temporal and Racial Differences Associated with Atopic Dermatitis Staphylococcusaureus and Encoded Virulence Factors.

Merriman JA, Mueller EA, Cahill MP, Beck LA, Paller AS, Hanifin JM, Ong PY, Schneider L, Babineau DC, David G, Lockhart A, Artis K, Leung DY, Schlievert PM.

mSphere. 2016 Dec 7;1(6). pii: e00295-16. eCollection 2016 Nov-Dec.


The Spl Serine Proteases Modulate Staphylococcus aureus Protein Production and Virulence in a Rabbit Model of Pneumonia.

Paharik AE, Salgado-Pabon W, Meyerholz DK, White MJ, Schlievert PM, Horswill AR.

mSphere. 2016 Oct 12;1(5). pii: e00208-16. eCollection 2016 Sep-Oct.


Local Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Mediates the Systemic Pathogenic Effects of Staphylococcus aureus Toxic Shock Syndrome.

Breshears LM, Gillman AN, Stach CS, Schlievert PM, Peterson ML.

PLoS One. 2016 Jul 14;11(7):e0158969. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0158969. eCollection 2016.


The Staphylococcus aureus Global Regulator MgrA Modulates Clumping and Virulence by Controlling Surface Protein Expression.

Crosby HA, Schlievert PM, Merriman JA, King JM, Salgado-Pabón W, Horswill AR.

PLoS Pathog. 2016 May 4;12(5):e1005604. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005604. eCollection 2016 May.


Novel Tissue Level Effects of the Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxin Gene Cluster Are Essential for Infective Endocarditis.

Stach CS, Vu BG, Merriman JA, Herrera A, Cahill MP, Schlievert PM, Salgado-Pabón W.

PLoS One. 2016 Apr 28;11(4):e0154762. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154762. eCollection 2016.


Staphylococcus aureus β-Toxin Mutants Are Defective in Biofilm Ligase and Sphingomyelinase Activity, and Causation of Infective Endocarditis and Sepsis.

Herrera A, Vu BG, Stach CS, Merriman JA, Horswill AR, Salgado-Pabón W, Schlievert PM.

Biochemistry. 2016 May 3;55(17):2510-7. doi: 10.1021/acs.biochem.6b00083. Epub 2016 Apr 15.


Rabbit Model for Superantigen-Mediated Lethal Pulmonary Disease.

Strandberg KL, Rotschafer JH, Schlievert PM.

Methods Mol Biol. 2016;1396:81-93. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-3344-0_7.


Aortic Valve Damage for the Study of Left-Sided, Native Valve Infective Endocarditis in Rabbits.

Salgado-Pabón W, Schlievert PM.

Methods Mol Biol. 2016;1396:73-80. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-3344-0_6.


Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Toxic Shock Syndrome in Rabbits.

Stach CS, Schlievert PM.

Methods Mol Biol. 2016;1396:67-71. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-3344-0_5.


Identification, Purification, and Characterization of Staphylococcal Superantigens.

Merriman JA, Schlievert PM.

Methods Mol Biol. 2016;1396:19-33. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-3344-0_2.


Determining the Presence of Superantigens in Coagulase Negative Staphylococci from Humans.

Stach CS, Vu BG, Schlievert PM.

PLoS One. 2015 Nov 23;10(11):e0143341. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0143341. eCollection 2015.


Does Staphylococcus aureus have a role in the development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus?

Schlievert PM, Salgado-Pabón W, Klingelhutz AJ.

Future Microbiol. 2015;10(10):1549-52. doi: 10.2217/fmb.15.95. Epub 2015 Oct 6. No abstract available.


Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, not α-toxin, mediated Bundaberg fatalities.

Mueller EA, Merriman JA, Schlievert PM.

Microbiology. 2015 Dec;161(12):2361-2368. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.000196. Epub 2015 Oct 1.


Novel Staphylococcus aureus Secreted Protein Alters Keratinocyte Proliferation and Elicits a Proinflammatory Response In Vitro and In Vivo.

Merriman JA, Klingelhutz AJ, Diekema DJ, Leung DY, Schlievert PM.

Biochemistry. 2015 Aug 11;54(31):4855-62. doi: 10.1021/acs.biochem.5b00523. Epub 2015 Jul 28.


Evaluation of the Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm-Associated Virulence Factors AhrC and Eep in Rat Foreign Body Osteomyelitis and In Vitro Biofilm-Associated Antimicrobial Resistance.

Frank KL, Vergidis P, Brinkman CL, Greenwood Quaintance KE, Barnes AM, Mandrekar JN, Schlievert PM, Dunny GM, Patel R.

PLoS One. 2015 Jun 15;10(6):e0130187. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0130187. eCollection 2015.


Glycerol Monolaurate Microbicide Protection against Repeat High-Dose SIV Vaginal Challenge.

Haase AT, Rakasz E, Schultz-Darken N, Nephew K, Weisgrau KL, Reilly CS, Li Q, Southern PJ, Rothenberger M, Peterson ML, Schlievert PM.

PLoS One. 2015 Jun 9;10(6):e0129465. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0129465. eCollection 2015.


Non-aqueous glycerol monolaurate gel exhibits antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens.

Mueller EA, Schlievert PM.

PLoS One. 2015 Mar 23;10(3):e0120280. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0120280. eCollection 2015.


Chronic superantigen exposure induces systemic inflammation, elevated bloodstream endotoxin, and abnormal glucose tolerance in rabbits: possible role in diabetes.

Vu BG, Stach CS, Kulhankova K, Salgado-Pabón W, Klingelhutz AJ, Schlievert PM.

mBio. 2015 Feb 24;6(2):e02554. doi: 10.1128/mBio.02554-14.


Transcriptome analysis of Enterococcus faecalis during mammalian infection shows cells undergo adaptation and exist in a stringent response state.

Frank KL, Colomer-Winter C, Grindle SM, Lemos JA, Schlievert PM, Dunny GM.

PLoS One. 2014 Dec 29;9(12):e115839. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0115839. eCollection 2014.


The dream of Staphylococcal vaccination.

Schlievert PM.

J Exp Med. 2014 Nov 17;211(12):2326. doi: 10.1084/jem.21112insight1. No abstract available.


Are we close to a vaccination against Staphylococcus aureus?

Merriman JA, Schlievert PM.

Future Microbiol. 2014;9(6):717-20. doi: 10.2217/fmb.14.40. No abstract available.


Models matter: the search for an effective Staphylococcus aureus vaccine.

Salgado-Pabón W, Schlievert PM.

Nat Rev Microbiol. 2014 Aug;12(8):585-91. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro3308. Epub 2014 Jul 7. Review.


Superantigens of Staphylococcus aureus from patients with diabetic foot ulcers.

Vu BG, Stach CS, Salgado-Pabón W, Diekema DJ, Gardner SE, Schlievert PM.

J Infect Dis. 2014 Dec 15;210(12):1920-7. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu350. Epub 2014 Jun 20.


The classical lancefield antigen of group a Streptococcus is a virulence determinant with implications for vaccine design.

van Sorge NM, Cole JN, Kuipers K, Henningham A, Aziz RK, Kasirer-Friede A, Lin L, Berends ETM, Davies MR, Dougan G, Zhang F, Dahesh S, Shaw L, Gin J, Cunningham M, Merriman JA, Hütter J, Lepenies B, Rooijakkers SHM, Malley R, Walker MJ, Shattil SJ, Schlievert PM, Choudhury B, Nizet V.

Cell Host Microbe. 2014 Jun 11;15(6):729-740. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2014.05.009.


Staphylococcal superantigens interact with multiple host receptors to cause serious diseases.

Stach CS, Herrera A, Schlievert PM.

Immunol Res. 2014 Aug;59(1-3):177-81. doi: 10.1007/s12026-014-8539-7. Review.


Novel antimicrobial peptides that inhibit gram positive bacterial exotoxin synthesis.

Merriman JA, Nemeth KA, Schlievert PM.

PLoS One. 2014 Apr 18;9(4):e95661. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095661. eCollection 2014.


Staphylococcus aureus β-toxin production is common in strains with the β-toxin gene inactivated by bacteriophage.

Salgado-Pabón W, Herrera A, Vu BG, Stach CS, Merriman JA, Spaulding AR, Schlievert PM.

J Infect Dis. 2014 Sep 1;210(5):784-92. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu146. Epub 2014 Mar 11.


The Staphylococcus aureus ArlRS two-component system is a novel regulator of agglutination and pathogenesis.

Walker JN, Crosby HA, Spaulding AR, Salgado-Pabón W, Malone CL, Rosenthal CB, Schlievert PM, Boyd JM, Horswill AR.

PLoS Pathog. 2013;9(12):e1003819. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003819. Epub 2013 Dec 19.


Vaccination against Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia.

Spaulding AR, Salgado-Pabón W, Merriman JA, Stach CS, Ji Y, Gillman AN, Peterson ML, Schlievert PM.

J Infect Dis. 2014 Jun 15;209(12):1955-62. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jit823. Epub 2013 Dec 19.


Staphylococcal superantigens stimulate immortalized human adipocytes to produce chemokines.

Vu BG, Gourronc FA, Bernlohr DA, Schlievert PM, Klingelhutz AJ.

PLoS One. 2013 Oct 30;8(10):e77988. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077988. eCollection 2013.


Molecular analysis of staphylococcal superantigens.

Salgado-Pabón W, Case-Cook LC, Schlievert PM.

Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1085:169-85. doi: 10.1007/978-1-62703-664-1_10.


Superantigens are critical for Staphylococcus aureus Infective endocarditis, sepsis, and acute kidney injury.

Salgado-Pabón W, Breshears L, Spaulding AR, Merriman JA, Stach CS, Horswill AR, Peterson ML, Schlievert PM.

mBio. 2013 Aug 20;4(4). pii: e00494-13. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00494-13.


Menaquinone analogs inhibit growth of bacterial pathogens.

Schlievert PM, Merriman JA, Salgado-Pabón W, Mueller EA, Spaulding AR, Vu BG, Chuang-Smith ON, Kohler PL, Kirby JR.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013 Nov;57(11):5432-7. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01279-13. Epub 2013 Aug 19.


Staphylococcal and streptococcal superantigen exotoxins.

Spaulding AR, Salgado-Pabón W, Kohler PL, Horswill AR, Leung DY, Schlievert PM.

Clin Microbiol Rev. 2013 Jul;26(3):422-47. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00104-12. Review.


Enterococcus faecalis inhibits superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1-induced interleukin-8 from human vaginal epithelial cells through tetramic acids.

Brosnahan AJ, Merriman JA, Salgado-Pabón W, Ford B, Schlievert PM.

PLoS One. 2013 Apr 22;8(4):e61255. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061255. Print 2013.


AhrC and Eep are biofilm infection-associated virulence factors in Enterococcus faecalis.

Frank KL, Guiton PS, Barnes AM, Manias DA, Chuang-Smith ON, Kohler PL, Spaulding AR, Hultgren SJ, Schlievert PM, Dunny GM.

Infect Immun. 2013 May;81(5):1696-708. doi: 10.1128/IAI.01210-12. Epub 2013 Mar 4.

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