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Efficient nonenzymatic cyclization and domain shuffling drive pyrrolopyrazine diversity from truncated variants of a fungal NRPS.

Berry D, Mace W, Grage K, Wesche F, Gore S, Schardl CL, Young CA, Dijkwel PP, Leuchtmann A, Bode HB, Scott B.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Dec 17;116(51):25614-25623. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1913080116. Epub 2019 Dec 4.


Transcriptome Analysis and Differential Expression in Tall Fescue Harboring Different Endophyte Strains in Response to Water Deficit.

Dinkins RD, Nagabhyru P, Young CA, West CP, Schardl CL.

Plant Genome. 2019 Jun;12(2). doi: 10.3835/plantgenome2018.09.0071.


CURatio: Genome-wide phylogenomic analysis method using ratios of total branch lengths.

Kang Q, Schardl CL, Moore N, Yoshida R.

IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform. 2018 Oct 30. doi: 10.1109/TCBB.2018.2878564. [Epub ahead of print]


Repeat elements organise 3D genome structure and mediate transcription in the filamentous fungus Epichloë festucae.

Winter DJ, Ganley ARD, Young CA, Liachko I, Schardl CL, Dupont PY, Berry D, Ram A, Scott B, Cox MP.

PLoS Genet. 2018 Oct 24;14(10):e1007467. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1007467. eCollection 2018 Oct.


Correction to: A comparative genomic analysis of putative pathogenicity genes in the host-specific sibling species Colletotrichum graminicola and Colletotrichum sublineola.

Buiate EAS, Xavier KV, Moore N, Torres MF, Farman ML, Schardl CL, Vaillancourt LJ.

BMC Genomics. 2018 Sep 19;19(1):686. doi: 10.1186/s12864-018-5073-3.


Transcriptomics of Epichloë-Grass Symbioses in Host Vegetative and Reproductive Stages.

Nagabhyru P, Dinkins RD, Schardl CL.

Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2019 Feb;32(2):194-207. doi: 10.1094/MPMI-10-17-0251-R. Epub 2018 Nov 30.


Installation of the Ether Bridge of Lolines by the Iron- and 2-Oxoglutarate-Dependent Oxygenase, LolO: Regio- and Stereochemistry of Sequential Hydroxylation and Oxacyclization Reactions.

Pan J, Bhardwaj M, Zhang B, Chang WC, Schardl CL, Krebs C, Grossman RB, Bollinger JM Jr.

Biochemistry. 2018 Apr 10;57(14):2074-2083. doi: 10.1021/acs.biochem.8b00157. Epub 2018 Mar 29.


Toxin-producing Epichloë bromicola strains symbiotic with the forage grass Elymus dahuricus in China.

Shi C, An S, Yao Z, Young CA, Panaccione DG, Lee ST, Schardl CL, Li C.

Mycologia. 2017;109(6):847-859. doi: 10.1080/00275514.2018.1426941. Epub 2018 Mar 12.


Epichloë festucae endophytic growth in florets, seeds, and seedlings of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne).

Liu J, Nagabhyru P, Schardl CL.

Mycologia. 2017;109(5):691-700. doi: 10.1080/00275514.2017.1400305. Epub 2018 Jan 2.


Swainsonine Biosynthesis Genes in Diverse Symbiotic and Pathogenic Fungi.

Cook D, Donzelli BGG, Creamer R, Baucom DL, Gardner DR, Pan J, Moore N, Krasnoff SB, Jaromczyk JW, Schardl CL.

G3 (Bethesda). 2017 Jun 7;7(6):1791-1797. doi: 10.1534/g3.117.041384.


Ergot Alkaloids of the Family Clavicipitaceae.

Florea S, Panaccione DG, Schardl CL.

Phytopathology. 2017 May;107(5):504-518. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-12-16-0435-RVW. Epub 2017 Mar 29. Review.


A comparative genomic analysis of putative pathogenicity genes in the host-specific sibling species Colletotrichum graminicola and Colletotrichum sublineola.

Buiate EAS, Xavier KV, Moore N, Torres MF, Farman ML, Schardl CL, Vaillancourt LJ.

BMC Genomics. 2017 Jan 10;18(1):67. doi: 10.1186/s12864-016-3457-9. Erratum in: BMC Genomics. 2018 Sep 19;19(1):686.


Host Tissue Environment Directs Activities of an Epichloë Endophyte, While It Induces Systemic Hormone and Defense Responses in Its Native Perennial Ryegrass Host.

Schmid J, Day R, Zhang N, Dupont PY, Cox MP, Schardl CL, Minards N, Truglio M, Moore N, Harris DR, Zhou Y.

Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2017 Feb;30(2):138-149. doi: 10.1094/MPMI-10-16-0215-R. Epub 2017 Mar 3.


Transcriptome response of Lolium arundinaceum to its fungal endophyte Epichloë coenophiala.

Dinkins RD, Nagabhyru P, Graham MA, Boykin D, Schardl CL.

New Phytol. 2017 Jan;213(1):324-337. doi: 10.1111/nph.14103. Epub 2016 Aug 1.


Chromosome-End Knockoff Strategy to Reshape Alkaloid Profiles of a Fungal Endophyte.

Florea S, Phillips TD, Panaccione DG, Farman ML, Schardl CL.

G3 (Bethesda). 2016 Aug 9;6(8):2601-10. doi: 10.1534/g3.116.029686.


Modulation of Ergot Alkaloids in a Grass-Endophyte Symbiosis by Alteration of mRNA Concentrations of an Ergot Alkaloid Synthesis Gene.

Mulinti P, Florea S, Schardl CL, Panaccione DG.

J Agric Food Chem. 2016 Jun 22;64(24):4982-9. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.6b01604. Epub 2016 Jun 7.


Introduction to the Toxins Special Issue on Ergot Alkaloids.

Schardl CL.

Toxins (Basel). 2015 Oct;7(10):4232-7. No abstract available.


Endophytic Epichloë species and their grass hosts: from evolution to applications.

Saikkonen K, Young CA, Helander M, Schardl CL.

Plant Mol Biol. 2016 Apr;90(6):665-75. doi: 10.1007/s11103-015-0399-6. Epub 2015 Nov 5. Review.


Detection and Isolation of Epichloë Species, Fungal Endophytes of Grasses.

Florea S, Schardl CL, Hollin W.

Curr Protoc Microbiol. 2015 Aug 3;38:19A.1.1-19A.1.24. doi: 10.1002/9780471729259.mc19a01s38.


Two distinct Epichloë species symbiotic with Achnatherum inebrians, drunken horse grass.

Chen L, Li X, Li C, Swoboda GA, Young CA, Sugawara K, Leuchtmann A, Schardl CL.

Mycologia. 2015 Jul-Aug;107(4):863-73. doi: 10.3852/15-019. Epub 2015 Apr 24.


Genetics, genomics and evolution of ergot alkaloid diversity.

Young CA, Schardl CL, Panaccione DG, Florea S, Takach JE, Charlton ND, Moore N, Webb JS, Jaromczyk J.

Toxins (Basel). 2015 Apr 14;7(4):1273-302. doi: 10.3390/toxins7041273. Review.


Disparate independent genetic events disrupt the secondary metabolism gene perA in certain symbiotic Epichloë species.

Berry D, Takach JE, Schardl CL, Charlton ND, Scott B, Young CA.

Appl Environ Microbiol. 2015 Apr;81(8):2797-807. doi: 10.1128/AEM.03721-14. Epub 2015 Feb 13.


Enzymes from fungal and plant origin required for chemical diversification of insecticidal loline alkaloids in grass-Epichloë symbiota.

Pan J, Bhardwaj M, Nagabhyru P, Grossman RB, Schardl CL.

PLoS One. 2014 Dec 22;9(12):e115590. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0115590. eCollection 2014.


Species diversity of Epichloë symbiotic with two grasses from southern Argentinean Patagonia.

Mc Cargo PD, Iannone LJ, Vignale MV, Schardl CL, Rossi MS.

Mycologia. 2014 Mar-Apr;106(2):339-52. doi: 10.3852/106.2.339.


kdetrees: Non-parametric estimation of phylogenetic tree distributions.

Weyenberg G, Huggins PM, Schardl CL, Howe DK, Yoshida R.

Bioinformatics. 2014 Aug 15;30(16):2280-7. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btu258. Epub 2014 Apr 24.


Nomenclatural realignment of Neotyphodium species with genus Epicholë.

Leuchtmann A, Bacon CW, Schardl CL, White JF Jr, Tadych M.

Mycologia. 2014 Mar-Apr;106(2):202-15. Review.


Ether bridge formation in loline alkaloid biosynthesis.

Pan J, Bhardwaj M, Faulkner JR, Nagabhyru P, Charlton ND, Higashi RM, Miller AF, Young CA, Grossman RB, Schardl CL.

Phytochemistry. 2014 Feb;98:60-8. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2013.11.015. Epub 2013 Dec 26.


Tall fescue endophyte effects on tolerance to water-deficit stress.

Nagabhyru P, Dinkins RD, Wood CL, Bacon CW, Schardl CL.

BMC Plant Biol. 2013 Sep 9;13:127. doi: 10.1186/1471-2229-13-127.


The epichloae: alkaloid diversity and roles in symbiosis with grasses.

Schardl CL, Florea S, Pan J, Nagabhyru P, Bec S, Calie PJ.

Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2013 Aug;16(4):480-8. doi: 10.1016/j.pbi.2013.06.012. Epub 2013 Jul 11. Review.


Currencies of mutualisms: sources of alkaloid genes in vertically transmitted epichloae.

Schardl CL, Young CA, Pan J, Florea S, Takach JE, Panaccione DG, Farman ML, Webb JS, Jaromczyk J, Charlton ND, Nagabhyru P, Chen L, Shi C, Leuchtmann A.

Toxins (Basel). 2013 Jun 6;5(6):1064-88. doi: 10.3390/toxins5061064.


Plant-symbiotic fungi as chemical engineers: multi-genome analysis of the clavicipitaceae reveals dynamics of alkaloid loci.

Schardl CL, Young CA, Hesse U, Amyotte SG, Andreeva K, Calie PJ, Fleetwood DJ, Haws DC, Moore N, Oeser B, Panaccione DG, Schweri KK, Voisey CR, Farman ML, Jaromczyk JW, Roe BA, O'Sullivan DM, Scott B, Tudzynski P, An Z, Arnaoudova EG, Bullock CT, Charlton ND, Chen L, Cox M, Dinkins RD, Florea S, Glenn AE, Gordon A, Güldener U, Harris DR, Hollin W, Jaromczyk J, Johnson RD, Khan AK, Leistner E, Leuchtmann A, Li C, Liu J, Liu J, Liu M, Mace W, Machado C, Nagabhyru P, Pan J, Schmid J, Sugawara K, Steiner U, Takach JE, Tanaka E, Webb JS, Wilson EV, Wiseman JL, Yoshida R, Zeng Z.

PLoS Genet. 2013;9(2):e1003323. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003323. Epub 2013 Feb 28.


A linear-time algorithm for finding a maximum-length ORF in a splice graph.

Jaromczyk JW, Moore N, Schardl CL.

Int J Comput Biol Drug Des. 2012;5(3-4):284-97. doi: 10.1504/IJCBDD.2012.049212. Epub 2012 Sep 24.


Analysis and modification of ergot alkaloid profiles in fungi.

Panaccione DG, Ryan KL, Schardl CL, Florea S.

Methods Enzymol. 2012;515:267-90. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-394290-6.00012-4.


Lifestyle transitions in plant pathogenic Colletotrichum fungi deciphered by genome and transcriptome analyses.

O'Connell RJ, Thon MR, Hacquard S, Amyotte SG, Kleemann J, Torres MF, Damm U, Buiate EA, Epstein L, Alkan N, Altmüller J, Alvarado-Balderrama L, Bauser CA, Becker C, Birren BW, Chen Z, Choi J, Crouch JA, Duvick JP, Farman MA, Gan P, Heiman D, Henrissat B, Howard RJ, Kabbage M, Koch C, Kracher B, Kubo Y, Law AD, Lebrun MH, Lee YH, Miyara I, Moore N, Neumann U, Nordström K, Panaccione DG, Panstruga R, Place M, Proctor RH, Prusky D, Rech G, Reinhardt R, Rollins JA, Rounsley S, Schardl CL, Schwartz DC, Shenoy N, Shirasu K, Sikhakolli UR, Stüber K, Sukno SA, Sweigard JA, Takano Y, Takahara H, Trail F, van der Does HC, Voll LM, Will I, Young S, Zeng Q, Zhang J, Zhou S, Dickman MB, Schulze-Lefert P, Ver Loren van Themaat E, Ma LJ, Vaillancourt LJ.

Nat Genet. 2012 Sep;44(9):1060-5. doi: 10.1038/ng.2372. Epub 2012 Aug 12.


The Cre/lox system: a practical tool to efficiently eliminate selectable markers in fungal endophytes.

Florea S, Machado C, Andreeva K, Schardl CL.

Methods Mol Biol. 2012;824:371-9. doi: 10.1007/978-1-61779-433-9_19.


Abundant degenerate miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements in genomes of epichloid fungal endophytes of grasses.

Fleetwood DJ, Khan AK, Johnson RD, Young CA, Mittal S, Wrenn RE, Hesse U, Foster SJ, Schardl CL, Scott B.

Genome Biol Evol. 2011;3:1253-64. doi: 10.1093/gbe/evr098. Epub 2011 Sep 26.


Periglandula, a new fungal genus within the Clavicipitaceae and its association with Convolvulaceae.

Steiner U, Leibner S, Schardl CL, Leuchtmann A, Leistner E.

Mycologia. 2011 Sep-Oct;103(5):1133-45. doi: 10.3852/11-031. Epub 2011 May 10.


Are loline alkaloid levels regulated in grass endophytes by gene expression or substrate availability?

Zhang DX, Nagabhyru P, Blankenship JD, Schardl CL.

Plant Signal Behav. 2010 Nov;5(11):1419-22. doi: 10.1104/pp.109.138222. Epub 2010 Nov 1.


Statistical phylogenetic tree analysis using differences of means.

Arnaoudova E, Haws DC, Huggins P, Jaromczyk JW, Moore N, Schardl CL, Yoshida R.

Front Neurosci. 2010 Aug 3;4. pii: 47. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2010.00047. eCollection 2010.


Disruption of signaling in a fungal-grass symbiosis leads to pathogenesis.

Eaton CJ, Cox MP, Ambrose B, Becker M, Hesse U, Schardl CL, Scott B.

Plant Physiol. 2010 Aug;153(4):1780-94. doi: 10.1104/pp.110.158451. Epub 2010 Jun 2. Erratum in: Plant Physiol. 2012 Jun;159(2):871.


Phylogenetic analyses reveal monophyletic origin of the ergot alkaloid gene dmaW in fungi.

Liu M, Panaccione DG, Schardl CL.

Evol Bioinform Online. 2009 Jun 4;5:15-30.


Evolution of a subtilisin-like protease gene family in the grass endophytic fungus Epichloë festucae.

Bryant MK, Schardl CL, Hesse U, Scott B.

BMC Evol Biol. 2009 Jul 19;9:168. doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-9-168.


Elimination of marker genes from transformed filamentous fungi by unselected transient transfection with a Cre-expressing plasmid.

Florea S, Andreeva K, Machado C, Mirabito PM, Schardl CL.

Fungal Genet Biol. 2009 Oct;46(10):721-30. doi: 10.1016/j.fgb.2009.06.010. Epub 2009 Jul 2.


Regulation of a chemical defense against herbivory produced by symbiotic fungi in grass plants.

Zhang DX, Nagabhyru P, Schardl CL.

Plant Physiol. 2009 Jun;150(2):1072-82. doi: 10.1104/pp.109.138222. Epub 2009 Apr 29.


Coregulated expression of loline alkaloid-biosynthesis genes in Neotyphodium uncinatum cultures.

Zhang DX, Stromberg AJ, Spiering MJ, Schardl CL.

Fungal Genet Biol. 2009 Aug;46(8):517-30. doi: 10.1016/j.fgb.2009.03.010. Epub 2009 Apr 12.


Indole-diterpene biosynthetic capability of epichloë endophytes as predicted by ltm gene analysis.

Young CA, Tapper BA, May K, Moon CD, Schardl CL, Scott B.

Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009 Apr;75(7):2200-11. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00953-08. Epub 2009 Jan 30.


Necrotic Lesion Resistance Induced by Peronospora tabacina on Leaves of Nicotiana obtusifolia.

Heist EP, Zaitlin D, Funnell DL, Nesmith WC, Schardl CL.

Phytopathology. 2004 Nov;94(11):1178-88. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO.2004.94.11.1178.


Cocultures of Peronospora tabacina and Nicotiana Species to Study Host-Pathogen Interactions.

Heist EP, Nesmith WC, Schardl CL.

Phytopathology. 2001 Dec;91(12):1224-30. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO.2001.91.12.1224.


Interactions of Peronospora tabacina with Roots of Nicotiana spp. in Gnotobiotic Associations.

Heist EP, Nesmith WC, Schardl CL.

Phytopathology. 2002 Apr;92(4):400-5. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO.2002.92.4.400.

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