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J Neurosci. 2017 Feb 22;37(8):2112-2124. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3207-15.2016. Epub 2017 Jan 23.

Phosphodiesterase-10A Inverse Changes in Striatopallidal and Striatoentopeduncular Pathways of a Transgenic Mouse Model of DYT1 Dystonia.

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Department of Systems Medicine, Tor Vergata University of Rome, 00133 Rome, Italy.
Department of Biology and Biotechnology "Charles Darwin," Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy, and.
Santa Lucia Foundation, 00179 Rome, Italy.
Department of Systems Medicine, Tor Vergata University of Rome, 00133 Rome, Italy,


We report that changes of phosphodiesterase-10A (PDE10A) can map widespread functional imbalance of basal ganglia circuits in a mouse model of DYT1 dystonia overexpressing mutant torsinA. PDE10A is a key enzyme in the catabolism of second messenger cAMP and cGMP, whose synthesis is stimulated by D1 receptors and inhibited by D2 receptors preferentially expressed in striatoentopeducuncular/substantia nigra or striatopallidal pathways, respectively. PDE10A was studied in control mice (NT) and in mice carrying human wild-type torsinA (hWT) or mutant torsinA (hMT). Quantitative analysis of PDE10A expression was assessed in different brain areas by rabbit anti-PDE10A antibody immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. PDE10A-dependent cAMP hydrolyzing activity and PDE10A mRNA were also assessed. Striatopallidal neurons were identified by rabbit anti-enkephalin antibody.In NT mice, PDE10A is equally expressed in medium spiny striatal neurons and in their projections to entopeduncular nucleus/substantia nigra and to external globus pallidus. In hMT mice, PDE10A content selectively increases in enkephalin-positive striatal neuronal bodies; moreover, PDE10A expression and activity in hMT mice, compared with NT mice, significantly increase in globus pallidus but decrease in entopeduncular nucleus/substantia nigra. Similar changes of PDE10A occur in hWT mice, but such changes are not always significant. However, PDE10A mRNA expression appears comparable among NT, hWT, and hMT mice.In DYT1 transgenic mice, the inverse changes of PDE10A in striatoentopeduncular and striatopallidal projections might result over time in an imbalance between direct and indirect pathways for properly focusing movement. The decrease of PDE10A in the striatoentopeduncular/nigral projections might lead to increased intensity and duration of D1-stimulated cAMP/cGMP signaling; conversely, the increase of PDE10A in the striatopallidal projections might lead to increased intensity and duration of D2-inhibited cAMP/cGMP signaling.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In DYT1 transgenic mouse model of dystonia, PDE10A, a key enzyme in cAMP and cGMP catabolism, is downregulated in striatal projections to entopeduncular nucleus/substantia nigra, preferentially expressing D1 receptors that stimulate cAMP/cGMP synthesis. Conversely, in DYT1 mice, PDE10A is upregulated in striatal projections to globus pallidus, preferentially expressing D2 receptors that inhibit cAMP/cGMP synthesis. The inverse changes to PDE10A in striatoentopeduncular/substantia nigra and striatopallidal pathways might tightly interact downstream to dopamine receptors, likely resulting over time to increased intensity and duration respectively of D1-stimulated and D2-inhibited cAMP/cGMP signals. Therefore, PDE10A changes in the DYT1 model of dystonia can upset the functional balance of basal ganglia circuits, affecting direct and indirect pathways simultaneously.


PDE10A; basal ganglia; cAMP; dopamine receptors; dystonia; hyperkinetic disorder

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