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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Nov 15;113(46):13093-13097. Epub 2016 Nov 2.

Optimizing countershading camouflage.

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School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TQ, United Kingdom;
School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TQ, United Kingdom.
School of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9JP, United Kingdom.
Division of Psychology, Social and Health Sciences, Abertay University, Dundee DD1 1HG, United Kingdom.
School of Biology, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9TH, United Kingdom.


Countershading, the widespread tendency of animals to be darker on the side that receives strongest illumination, has classically been explained as an adaptation for camouflage: obliterating cues to 3D shape and enhancing background matching. However, there have only been two quantitative tests of whether the patterns observed in different species match the optimal shading to obliterate 3D cues, and no tests of whether optimal countershading actually improves concealment or survival. We use a mathematical model of the light field to predict the optimal countershading for concealment that is specific to the light environment and then test this prediction with correspondingly patterned model "caterpillars" exposed to avian predation in the field. We show that the optimal countershading is strongly illumination-dependent. A relatively sharp transition in surface patterning from dark to light is only optimal under direct solar illumination; if there is diffuse illumination from cloudy skies or shade, the pattern provides no advantage over homogeneous background-matching coloration. Conversely, a smoother gradation between dark and light is optimal under cloudy skies or shade. The demonstration of these illumination-dependent effects of different countershading patterns on predation risk strongly supports the comparative evidence showing that the type of countershading varies with light environment.


animal coloration; camouflage; defensive coloration; shape perception; shape-from-shading

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