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Drug Metab Dispos. 2019 Jan;47(1):26-37. doi: 10.1124/dmd.118.082099. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Evaluation of Carbazeran 4-Oxidation and O 6-Benzylguanine 8-Oxidation as Catalytic Markers of Human Aldehyde Oxidase: Impact of Cytosolic Contamination of Liver Microsomes.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science (J.X., N.F.S., S.C., S.Y.W., Z.P.Y., A.J.L.) and Department of Pharmacology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (A.J.L.), National University of Singapore, Singapore; and NANO BIOTEC, LLC., Whippany, New Jersey (L.H.Z.).
2
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science (J.X., N.F.S., S.C., S.Y.W., Z.P.Y., A.J.L.) and Department of Pharmacology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (A.J.L.), National University of Singapore, Singapore; and NANO BIOTEC, LLC., Whippany, New Jersey (L.H.Z.) aikjiang.lau@nus.edu.sg.

Abstract

The present study investigated the contribution of microsomal cytochrome P450 and cytosolic aldehyde oxidase-1 (AOX-1) to carbazeran 4-oxidation and O 6-benzylguanine 8-oxidation in human liver microsomal, cytosolic, and S9 fractions. Incubations containing carbazeran and human liver microsomes with or without exogenously added NADPH yielded comparable levels of 4-oxo-carbazeran. O 6-Benzylguanine 8-oxidation occurred in microsomal incubations, and the extent was increased by NADPH. Human recombinant CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 did not catalyze carbazeran 4-oxidation, whereas CYP1A2 was highly active in O 6-benzylguanine 8-oxidation. 1-Aminobenzotriazole, a pan-cytochrome P450 inhibitor, decreased O 6-benzylguanine 8-oxidation, but not carbazeran 4-oxidation, in microsomal incubations, whereas 1-aminobenzotriazole and furafylline (a CYP1A2-selective inhibitor) did not inhibit carbazeran 4-oxidation or O 6-benzylguanine 8-oxidation in human liver S9 fraction. Carbazeran 4-oxidation in incubations containing human liver microsomes (from multiple donors and commercial suppliers) was attributed to microsomal preparations contaminated with AOX-1, as suggested by liver microsomal experiments indicating a decrease in carbazeran 4-oxidation by an AOX-1 inhibitor (hydralazine), and to detection of AOX-1 protein (at one-third the level of that in liver cytosol). Cytosolic contamination of liver microsomes was further demonstrated by the formation of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (catalyzed by cytosolic sulfotransferases) in liver microsomal incubations containing dehydroepiandrosterone. In conclusion, carbazeran 4-oxidation and O 6-benzylguanine 8-oxidation are enzyme-selective catalytic markers of human AOX-1, as shown in human liver S9 fraction expressing cytochrome P450 and AOX-1. This study highlights the negative impact of cytosolic contamination of liver microsomes on the interpretation of reaction phenotyping data collected in an in vitro study performed in microsomal fractions.

PMID:
30337443
DOI:
10.1124/dmd.118.082099
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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