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Science. 2019 Nov 15;366(6467):860-864. doi: 10.1126/science.aay8645.

Nano-opto-electro-mechanical switches operated at CMOS-level voltages.

Author information

1
Institute of Electromagnetic Fields (IEF), ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland. christian.haffner@nist.gov.
2
Maryland NanoCenter, Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.
3
Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA.
4
Institute of Electromagnetic Fields (IEF), ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland.
5
Micro- and Nanosystems, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland.
6
Photonics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Abstract

Combining reprogrammable optical networks with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics is expected to provide a platform for technological developments in on-chip integrated optoelectronics. We demonstrate how opto-electro-mechanical effects in micrometer-scale hybrid photonic-plasmonic structures enable light switching under CMOS voltages and low optical losses (0.1 decibel). Rapid (for example, tens of nanoseconds) switching is achieved by an electrostatic, nanometer-scale perturbation of a thin, and thus low-mass, gold membrane that forms an air-gap hybrid photonic-plasmonic waveguide. Confinement of the plasmonic portion of the light to the variable-height air gap yields a strong opto-electro-mechanical effect, while photonic confinement of the rest of the light minimizes optical losses. The demonstrated hybrid architecture provides a route to develop applications for CMOS-integrated, reprogrammable optical systems such as optical neural networks for deep learning.

PMID:
31727832
DOI:
10.1126/science.aay8645

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