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Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2010 May;7(5):2238-55. doi: 10.3390/ijerph7052238. Epub 2010 May 6.

Latin America and the Caribbean: assessment of the advances in public health for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

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Department of Community Health Sciences, The University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS 39406, USA.


To improve health and economy of the world population, the United Nations has set up eight international goals, known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015. The goals include: (1) eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; (2) achieving universal primary education; (3) promoting gender equality; (4) reducing child mortality; (5) improving maternal health; (6) combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7) ensuring environmental sustainability; and (8) developing a global partnership for development. Having been in the midway from the 2015 deadline, the UN Secretary-General urges countries to engage constructively to review progress towards the MDGs. This paper aims to evaluate advances in public health, with special reference to gender inequalities in health, health sector reform, global burden of disease, neglected tropical diseases, vaccination, antibiotic use, sanitation and safe water, nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, indicators of health, and disease prevention in Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC). The paper also identifies areas of deficits for the achievement of MDGs in LAC.


Latin America and Caribbean; Millennium Development Goal; global burden of disease; inequality; public health

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