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Front Cell Dev Biol. 2019 Mar 5;7:24. doi: 10.3389/fcell.2019.00024. eCollection 2019.

Rewiring of Memory Circuits: Connecting Adult Newborn Neurons With the Help of Microglia.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Glial Cell Biology, Achucarro Basque Center for Neuroscience, Leioa, Spain.
2
Department of Neuroscience, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Leioa, Spain.
3
Ikerbasque Foundation, Bilbao, Spain.

Abstract

New neurons are continuously generated from stem cells and integrated into the adult hippocampal circuitry, contributing to memory function. Several environmental, cellular, and molecular factors regulate the formation of new neurons, but the mechanisms that govern their incorporation into memory circuits are less explored. Herein we will focus on microglia, the resident immune cells of the CNS, which modulate the production of new neurons in the adult hippocampus and are also well suited to participate in their circuit integration. Microglia may contribute to the refinement of brain circuits during development and exert a role in physiological and pathological conditions by regulating axonal and dendritic growth; promoting the formation, elimination, and relocation of synapses; modulating excitatory synaptic maturation; and participating in functional synaptic plasticity. Importantly, microglia are able to sense subtle changes in their environment and may use this information to differently modulate hippocampal wiring, ultimately impacting on memory function. Deciphering the role of microglia in hippocampal circuitry constant rewiring will help to better understand the influence of microglia on memory function.

KEYWORDS:

adult hippocampal neurogenesis; hippocampal circuit; memory; microglia; rewiring

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