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Sci Adv. 2019 Nov 8;5(11):eaaw5593. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw5593. eCollection 2019 Nov.

Room temperature strain-induced Landau levels in graphene on a wafer-scale platform.

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Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1, Canada.
Quantum Matter Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada.
Division of Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 516, 751 20 Uppsala, Sweden.
Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany.
Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, 01187 Dresden, Germany.
Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1, Canada.


Graphene is a powerful playground for studying a plethora of quantum phenomena. One of the remarkable properties of graphene arises when it is strained in particular geometries and the electrons behave as if they were under the influence of a magnetic field. Previously, these strain-induced pseudomagnetic fields have been explored on the nano- and micrometer-scale using scanning probe and transport measurements. Heteroepitaxial strain, in contrast, is a wafer-scale engineering method. Here, we show that pseudomagnetic fields can be generated in graphene through wafer-scale epitaxial growth. Shallow triangular nanoprisms in the SiC substrate generate strain-induced uniform fields of 41 T, enabling the observation of strain-induced Landau levels at room temperature, as detected by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, and confirmed by model calculations and scanning tunneling microscopy measurements. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of exploiting strain-induced quantum phases in two-dimensional Dirac materials on a wafer-scale platform, opening the field to new applications.

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