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Immunity to Staphylococcus aureus: Implications for Vaccine Development.

Proctor RA.

Microbiol Spectr. 2019 Jul;7(4). doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.GPP3-0037-2018.


The Energy-Coupling Factor Transporter Module EcfAA'T, a Novel Candidate for the Genetic Basis of Fatty Acid-Auxotrophic Small-Colony Variants of Staphylococcus aureus.

Schleimer N, Kaspar U, Drescher M, Seggewiß J, von Eiff C, Proctor RA, Peters G, Kriegeskorte A, Becker K.

Front Microbiol. 2018 Aug 14;9:1863. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.01863. eCollection 2018.


Daptomycin selects for genetic and phenotypic adaptations leading to antibiotic tolerance in MRSA.

Berti AD, Shukla N, Rottier AD, McCrone JS, Turner HM, Monk IR, Baines SL, Howden BP, Proctor RA, Rose WE.

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2018 Aug 1;73(8):2030-2033. doi: 10.1093/jac/dky148.


Increased Endovascular Staphylococcus aureus Inoculum Is the Link Between Elevated Serum Interleukin 10 Concentrations and Mortality in Patients With Bacteremia.

Rose WE, Shukla SK, Berti AD, Hayney MS, Henriquez KM, Ranzoni A, Cooper MA, Proctor RA, Nizet V, Sakoulas G.

Clin Infect Dis. 2017 May 15;64(10):1406-1412. doi: 10.1093/cid/cix157. Erratum in: Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Oct 15;65(8):1431-1433.


Penicillin Binding Protein 1 Is Important in the Compensatory Response of Staphylococcus aureus to Daptomycin-Induced Membrane Damage and Is a Potential Target for β-Lactam-Daptomycin Synergy.

Berti AD, Theisen E, Sauer JD, Nonejuie P, Olson J, Pogliano J, Sakoulas G, Nizet V, Proctor RA, Rose WE.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Nov 2;60(1):451-8. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02071-15. Print 2016 Jan.


Thymidine-Dependent Staphylococcus aureus Small-Colony Variants Are Induced by Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (SXT) and Have Increased Fitness during SXT Challenge.

Kriegeskorte A, Lorè NI, Bragonzi A, Riva C, Kelkenberg M, Becker K, Proctor RA, Peters G, Kahl BC.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Dec;59(12):7265-72. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00742-15. Epub 2015 Sep 14.


Heterogeneity of genetic pathways toward daptomycin nonsusceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus determined by adjunctive antibiotics.

Berti AD, Baines SL, Howden BP, Sakoulas G, Nizet V, Proctor RA, Rose WE.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 May;59(5):2799-806. doi: 10.1128/AAC.04990-14. Epub 2015 Mar 2.


Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants show common metabolic features in central metabolism irrespective of the underlying auxotrophism.

Kriegeskorte A, Grubmüller S, Huber C, Kahl BC, von Eiff C, Proctor RA, Peters G, Eisenreich W, Becker K.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2014 Oct 21;4:141. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2014.00141. eCollection 2014.


Staphylococcus aureus Small Colony Variants (SCVs): a road map for the metabolic pathways involved in persistent infections.

Proctor RA, Kriegeskorte A, Kahl BC, Becker K, Löffler B, Peters G.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2014 Jul 28;4:99. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2014.00099. eCollection 2014. Review.


Inactivation of thyA in Staphylococcus aureus attenuates virulence and has a strong impact on metabolism and virulence gene expression.

Kriegeskorte A, Block D, Drescher M, Windmüller N, Mellmann A, Baum C, Neumann C, Lorè NI, Bragonzi A, Liebau E, Hertel P, Seggewiss J, Becker K, Proctor RA, Peters G, Kahl BC.

MBio. 2014 Jul 29;5(4):e01447-14. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01447-14.


Where does a Staphylococcus aureus vaccine stand?

Fowler VG Jr, Proctor RA.

Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014 May;20 Suppl 5:66-75. doi: 10.1111/1469-0691.12570. Review.


Antibiotic activity against small-colony variants of Staphylococcus aureus: review of in vitro, animal and clinical data.

Garcia LG, Lemaire S, Kahl BC, Becker K, Proctor RA, Denis O, Tulkens PM, Van Bambeke F.

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013 Jul;68(7):1455-64. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkt072. Epub 2013 Mar 13. Review.


Intracellular forms of menadione-dependent small-colony variants of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are hypersusceptible to β-lactams in a THP-1 cell model due to cooperation between vacuolar acidic pH and oxidant species.

Garcia LG, Lemaire S, Kahl BC, Becker K, Proctor RA, Tulkens PM, Van Bambeke F.

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012 Dec;67(12):2873-81. doi: 10.1093/jac/dks325. Epub 2012 Sep 21.


Pharmacodynamic evaluation of the activity of antibiotics against hemin- and menadione-dependent small-colony variants of Staphylococcus aureus in models of extracellular (broth) and intracellular (THP-1 monocytes) infections.

Garcia LG, Lemaire S, Kahl BC, Becker K, Proctor RA, Denis O, Tulkens PM, Van Bambeke F.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 Jul;56(7):3700-11. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00285-12. Epub 2012 May 7.


Challenges for a universal Staphylococcus aureus vaccine.

Proctor RA.

Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Apr;54(8):1179-86. doi: 10.1093/cid/cis033. Epub 2012 Feb 21. Review.


Immunization with Staphylococcus aureus iron regulated surface determinant B (IsdB) confers protection via Th17/IL17 pathway in a murine sepsis model.

Joshi A, Pancari G, Cope L, Bowman EP, Cua D, Proctor RA, McNeely T.

Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2012 Mar;8(3):336-46. doi: 10.4161/hv.18946. Epub 2012 Feb 13.


Is there a future for a Staphylococcus aureus vaccine?

Proctor RA.

Vaccine. 2012 Apr 19;30(19):2921-7. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.11.006. Epub 2011 Nov 21. Review.


Daptomycin resistance mechanisms in clinically derived Staphylococcus aureus strains assessed by a combined transcriptomics and proteomics approach.

Fischer A, Yang SJ, Bayer AS, Vaezzadeh AR, Herzig S, Stenz L, Girard M, Sakoulas G, Scherl A, Yeaman MR, Proctor RA, Schrenzel J, François P.

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011 Aug;66(8):1696-711. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkr195. Epub 2011 May 28.


Small colony variants of Staphylococcus aureus reveal distinct protein profiles.

Kriegeskorte A, König S, Sander G, Pirkl A, Mahabir E, Proctor RA, von Eiff C, Peters G, Becker K.

Proteomics. 2011 Jun;11(12):2476-90. doi: 10.1002/pmic.201000796. Epub 2011 May 18.


Staphylococcus aureus phenotype switching: an effective bacterial strategy to escape host immune response and establish a chronic infection.

Tuchscherr L, Medina E, Hussain M, Völker W, Heitmann V, Niemann S, Holzinger D, Roth J, Proctor RA, Becker K, Peters G, Löffler B.

EMBO Mol Med. 2011 Mar;3(3):129-41. doi: 10.1002/emmm.201000115. Epub 2011 Jan 26.


Carotenoid-related alteration of cell membrane fluidity impacts Staphylococcus aureus susceptibility to host defense peptides.

Mishra NN, Liu GY, Yeaman MR, Nast CC, Proctor RA, McKinnell J, Bayer AS.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Feb;55(2):526-31. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00680-10. Epub 2010 Nov 29.


Redox sensing by a Rex-family repressor is involved in the regulation of anaerobic gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus.

Pagels M, Fuchs S, Pané-Farré J, Kohler C, Menschner L, Hecker M, McNamarra PJ, Bauer MC, von Wachenfeldt C, Liebeke M, Lalk M, Sander G, von Eiff C, Proctor RA, Engelmann S.

Mol Microbiol. 2010 Jun 1;76(5):1142-61. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2010.07105.x. Epub 2010 Mar 30.


Identification of differentially expressed small non-protein-coding RNAs in Staphylococcus aureus displaying both the normal and the small-colony variant phenotype.

Abu-Qatouseh LF, Chinni SV, Seggewiss J, Proctor RA, Brosius J, Rozhdestvensky TS, Peters G, von Eiff C, Becker K.

J Mol Med (Berl). 2010 Jun;88(6):565-75. doi: 10.1007/s00109-010-0597-2. Epub 2010 Feb 12.


Staphylococcus aureus panton-valentine leukocidin is a very potent cytotoxic factor for human neutrophils.

Löffler B, Hussain M, Grundmeier M, Brück M, Holzinger D, Varga G, Roth J, Kahl BC, Proctor RA, Peters G.

PLoS Pathog. 2010 Jan 8;6(1):e1000715. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000715.


Characterization of clinical Enterococcus faecalis small-colony variants.

Wellinghausen N, Chatterjee I, Berger A, Niederfuehr A, Proctor RA, Kahl BC.

J Clin Microbiol. 2009 Sep;47(9):2802-11. doi: 10.1128/JCM.00485-09. Epub 2009 Jul 15.


At the crossroads of bacterial metabolism and virulence factor synthesis in Staphylococci.

Somerville GA, Proctor RA.

Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2009 Jun;73(2):233-48. doi: 10.1128/MMBR.00005-09. Review.


Transcriptomic and metabolic responses of Staphylococcus aureus exposed to supra-physiological temperatures.

Fleury B, Kelley WL, Lew D, Götz F, Proctor RA, Vaudaux P.

BMC Microbiol. 2009 Apr 22;9:76. doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-9-76.


Staphylococcus aureus ClpC ATPase is a late growth phase effector of metabolism and persistence.

Chatterjee I, Schmitt S, Batzilla CF, Engelmann S, Keller A, Ring MW, Kautenburger R, Ziebuhr W, Hecker M, Preissner KT, Bischoff M, Proctor RA, Beck HP, Lenhof HP, Somerville GA, Herrmann M.

Proteomics. 2009 Mar;9(5):1152-76. doi: 10.1002/pmic.200800586.


Surfactants, aromatic and isoprenoid compounds, and fatty acid biosynthesis inhibitors suppress Staphylococcus aureus production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1.

McNamara PJ, Syverson RE, Milligan-Myhre K, Frolova O, Schroeder S, Kidder J, Hoang T, Proctor RA.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009 May;53(5):1898-906. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01293-08. Epub 2009 Feb 17.


Staphylococcus aureus as an intracellular pathogen: the role of small colony variants.

Sendi P, Proctor RA.

Trends Microbiol. 2009 Feb;17(2):54-8. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2008.11.004. Epub 2009 Jan 21.


Identification of the genetic basis for clinical menadione-auxotrophic small-colony variant isolates of Staphylococcus aureus.

Lannergård J, von Eiff C, Sander G, Cordes T, Seggewiss J, Peters G, Proctor RA, Becker K, Hughes D.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 Nov;52(11):4017-22. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00668-08. Epub 2008 Sep 8.


A defect in menadione biosynthesis induces global changes in gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus.

Kohler C, von Eiff C, Liebeke M, McNamara PJ, Lalk M, Proctor RA, Hecker M, Engelmann S.

J Bacteriol. 2008 Oct;190(19):6351-64. doi: 10.1128/JB.00505-08. Epub 2008 Aug 1.


Role of folate antagonists in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection.

Proctor RA.

Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Feb 15;46(4):584-93. doi: 10.1086/525536. Review.


Failures in clinical treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Infection with daptomycin are associated with alterations in surface charge, membrane phospholipid asymmetry, and drug binding.

Jones T, Yeaman MR, Sakoulas G, Yang SJ, Proctor RA, Sahl HG, Schrenzel J, Xiong YQ, Bayer AS.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 Jan;52(1):269-78. Epub 2007 Oct 22.


In vivo mutations of thymidylate synthase (encoded by thyA) are responsible for thymidine dependency in clinical small-colony variants of Staphylococcus aureus.

Chatterjee I, Kriegeskorte A, Fischer A, Deiwick S, Theimann N, Proctor RA, Peters G, Herrmann M, Kahl BC.

J Bacteriol. 2008 Feb;190(3):834-42. Epub 2007 Sep 28.


In vitro susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus to thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein-1 (tPMP-1) is influenced by cell membrane phospholipid composition and asymmetry.

Mukhopadhyay K, Whitmire W, Xiong YQ, Molden J, Jones T, Peschel A, Staubitz P, Adler-Moore J, McNamara PJ, Proctor RA, Yeaman MR, Bayer AS.

Microbiology. 2007 Apr;153(Pt 4):1187-97.


Bacterial interactions and the microevolution of cytochrome bd: implications for pathogenesis.

McNamara PJ, Proctor RA.

J Bacteriol. 2006 Dec;188(23):7997-8. No abstract available.


Bacterial energetics and antimicrobial resistance.

Proctor RA, von Humboldt A.

Drug Resist Updat. 1998;1(4):227-35.


Small colony variants: a pathogenic form of bacteria that facilitates persistent and recurrent infections.

Proctor RA, von Eiff C, Kahl BC, Becker K, McNamara P, Herrmann M, Peters G.

Nat Rev Microbiol. 2006 Apr;4(4):295-305. Review.


Phenotype microarray profiling of Staphylococcus aureus menD and hemB mutants with the small-colony-variant phenotype.

von Eiff C, McNamara P, Becker K, Bates D, Lei XH, Ziman M, Bochner BR, Peters G, Proctor RA.

J Bacteriol. 2006 Jan;188(2):687-93.


Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants are resistant to the antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin B.

Samuelsen O, Haukland HH, Kahl BC, von Eiff C, Proctor RA, Ulvatne H, Sandvik K, Vorland LH.

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005 Dec;56(6):1126-9. Epub 2005 Nov 15.


Staphylococcus aureus ClpC is required for stress resistance, aconitase activity, growth recovery, and death.

Chatterjee I, Becker P, Grundmeier M, Bischoff M, Somerville GA, Peters G, Sinha B, Harraghy N, Proctor RA, Herrmann M.

J Bacteriol. 2005 Jul;187(13):4488-96.

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