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J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Mar;312(3):1272-9. Epub 2004 Nov 10.

Protease inhibitor treatments reveal specific involvement of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in human adipocyte differentiation.

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Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U586, 37 Allées Jules Guesde, 31073 Toulouse, France.


We previously showed that human and murine 3T3-F442A preadipocytes produced and released matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2 and 9 and that a treatment by MMP inhibitors resulted in the blockade of murine fat cell adipose conversion. In parallel, investigators reported that other protease inhibitors, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors (PIs) involved in lipodystrophy in humans, also reduced the adipocyte differentiation process of several murine cell lines. The present work was performed to define the effects of MMP inhibitors and HIV-PIs on the human adipocyte differentiation process, to clarify the involvement of MMPs in the control of human adipogenesis, and to determine whether HIV-PIs interact with MMPs in the control of this process. The effect of two MMP inhibitor and four HIV-PI treatments on the differentiation of primary culture human preadipocytes, as well as the putative relationships between HIV-PIs and MMP-2 and -9 expression, release, or activity were investigated. We showed that MMP inhibitors and HIV-PIs reduced the human adipocyte differentiation process as assessed by the decrease of cell protein and/or triglyceride contents and expression of fatty acid binding protein and hormone-sensitive lipase, two adipocyte markers. Unlike MMP inhibitors, HIV-PIs were devoid of any effect per se on recombinant MMP-2 and 9 activities but reduced the expression and release of MMP-9 by human preadipocytes. Thus, the present study indicates that the modulation of the extracellular matrix components through the production and/or activity of MMPs, and, more precisely, MMP-9 might be a key factor in the regulation of human adipose tissue development.

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