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Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2017 Jan 5;24(1). pii: e00414-16. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00414-16. Print 2017 Jan.

Comparisons of the Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses Induced by Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine and Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Adults.

Author information

1
Division of Infectious Diseases, Allergy & Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri, USA hoftdf@slu.edu.
2
Division of Infectious Diseases, Allergy & Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Abstract

Both live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) and inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV) induce protective immunity against influenza. There is evidence that LAIV induces superior protection in children, whereas IIV may induce superior protection in adults. The immune mechanisms responsible for these differences have not been identified. We previously compared LAIV and IIV in young children of 6 to 36 months of age, and we demonstrated that while both induced similar hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody responses, only LAIV induced significant increases in T cell responses. In the present study, 37 healthy adult subjects of 18 to 49 years of age were randomized to receive seasonal influenza vaccination with LAIV or IIV. Influenza virus-specific HAI, T cell, and secretory IgA (sIgA) responses were studied pre- and postvaccination. In contrast to the responses seen in young children, LAIV induced only minimal increases in serum HAI responses in adults, which were significantly lower than the responses induced by IIV. Both LAIV and IIV similarly induced only transient T cell responses to replication-competent whole virus in adults. In contrast, influenza virus-specific sIgA responses were induced more strongly by LAIV than by IIV. Our previous studies suggest that LAIV may be more protective than IIV in young children not previously exposed to influenza virus or influenza vaccines due to increased vaccine-induced T cell and/or sIgA responses. Our current work suggests that in adults with extensive and partially cross-reactive preexisting influenza immunity, LAIV boosting of sIgA responses to hemagglutinin (HA) and non-HA antigenic targets expressed by circulating influenza virus strains may be an important additional mechanism of vaccine-induced immunity.

KEYWORDS:

IIV; LAIV; adults; influenza; vaccine

PMID:
27847366
PMCID:
PMC5216430
DOI:
10.1128/CVI.00414-16
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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