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Genetics. 2019 Oct;213(2):517-528. doi: 10.1534/genetics.119.301012. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

A Conserved PP2A Regulatory Subunit Enforces Proportional Relationships Between Cell Size and Growth Rate.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064.
2
Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064 dkellogg@ucsc.edu.

Abstract

Cell size is proportional to growth rate. Thus, cells growing rapidly in rich nutrients can be nearly twice the size of cells growing slowly in poor nutrients. This proportional relationship appears to hold across all orders of life, yet the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In budding yeast, most growth occurs during mitosis, and the proportional relationship between cell size and growth rate is therefore enforced primarily by modulating growth in mitosis. When growth is slow, the duration of mitosis is increased to allow more time for growth, yet the amount of growth required to complete mitosis is reduced, which leads to the birth of small daughter cells. Previous studies have found that Rts1, a member of the conserved B56 family of protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunits, works in a TORC2 signaling network that influences cell size and growth rate. However, it was unclear whether Rts1 influences cell growth and size in mitosis. Here, we show that Rts1 is required for the proportional relationship between cell size and growth rate during mitosis. Moreover, nutrients and Rts1 influence the duration and extent of growth in mitosis via Wee1 and Pds1/securin, two conserved regulators of mitotic progression. Together, the data are consistent with a model in which global signals that set growth rate also set the critical amount of growth required for cell cycle progression, which would provide a simple mechanistic explanation for the proportional relationship between cell size and growth rate.

KEYWORDS:

PP2A; Pds1; Rts1; Swe1; Wee1; cell growth; cell size; securin

PMID:
31488515
PMCID:
PMC6781898
[Available on 2020-10-01]
DOI:
10.1534/genetics.119.301012

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