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Acta Orthop. 2011 Aug;82(4):393-8. doi: 10.3109/17453674.2011.588861. Epub 2011 Jun 10.

Where did bone come from?

Author information

1
Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry , Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany. darja_obradovic@yahoo.de

Abstract

Bone is specific to vertebrates, and originated as mineralization around the basal membrane of the throat or skin, giving rise to tooth-like structures and protective shields in animals with a soft cartilage-like endoskeleton. A combination of fossil anatomy and genetic information from modern species has improved our understanding of the evolution of bone. Thus, even in man, there are still similarities in the molecular regulation of skin appendages and bone. This article gives a brief overview of the major milestones in skeletal evolution. Some molecular machineries involving members of core genetic networks and their interactions are described in the context of both old theories and modern genetic approaches.

PMID:
21657973
PMCID:
PMC3237026
DOI:
10.3109/17453674.2011.588861
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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