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J Neurosci. 2019 Jul 10;39(28):5481-5492. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0227-18.2019. Epub 2019 May 28.

Neural Stem Cells of the Subventricular Zone Contribute to Neuroprotection of the Corpus Callosum after Cuprizone-Induced Demyelination.

Author information

1
Neuroimmunology Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, 20132 Milan, Italy, martino.gianvito@hsr.it butti.erica@hsr.it.
2
Neuroimmunology Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, 20132 Milan, Italy.
3
Vita Salute San Raffaele University, 20132 Milan, Italy.
4
Neuropathology Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, 20132 Milan, Italy, and.

Abstract

Myelin loss occurring in demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis, is the leading cause of long-lasting neurological disability in adults. While endogenous remyelination, driven by resident oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), might partially compensate myelin loss in the early phases of demyelinating disorders, this spontaneous reparative potential fails at later stages. To investigate the cellular mechanisms sustaining endogenous remyelination in demyelinating disorders, we focused our attention on endogenous neural precursor cells (eNPCs) located within the subventricular zone (SVZ) since this latter area is considered one of the primary sources of new OPCs in the adult forebrain. First, we fate mapped SVZ-eNPCs in cuprizone-induced demyelination and found that SVZ endogenous neural stem/precursor cells are recruited during the remyelination phase to the corpus callosum (CC) and are capable of forming new oligodendrocytes. When we ablated SVZ-derived eNPCs during cuprizone-induced demyelination in female mice, the animals displayed reduced numbers of oligodendrocytes within the lesioned CC. Although this reduction in oligodendrocytes did not impact the ensuing remyelination, eNPC-ablated mice experienced increased axonal loss. Our results indicate that, in toxic models of demyelination, SVZ-derived eNPCs contribute to support axonal survival.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT One of the significant challenges in MS research is to understand the detrimental mechanisms leading to the failure of CNS tissue regeneration during disease progression. One possible explanation is the inability of recruited oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) to complete remyelination and to sustain axonal survival. The contribution of endogenous neural precursor cells (eNPCs) located in the subventricular zone (SVZ) to generate new OPCs in the lesion site has been debated. Using transgenic mice to fate map and to selectively kill SVZ-derived eNPCs in the cuprizone demyelination model, we observed migration of SVZ-eNPCs after injury and their contribution to oligodendrogenesis and axonal survival. We found that eNPCs are dispensable for remyelination but protect partially from increased axonal loss.

KEYWORDS:

ablation; cuprizone; multiple sclerosis; neural stem cells; sub ventricular zone; transgenic mice

PMID:
31138656
PMCID:
PMC6616285
[Available on 2020-01-10]
DOI:
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0227-18.2019

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